Monday, December 23, 2019

Benefits Of Being A Mere Child - 2434 Words

When we were but a mere child, the elders amongst our environment would often ask what we wanted to be in the future. Many options come to mind, and most being the clichà © answers that any child were exposed to, such as a firefighter, or a police man. However, at that age, our knowledge of those fields hardly encompassed precisely what those occupations routines were. Answering with these occupations at that age wasn’t true to exactly what would interest them in the future. For most children, these answers would then change over time, while others continuously struggle to figure out what it is they want to do. Fast forward a handful of years and you are now faced with the same questions, except staring at an application you are to submit to potential colleges you want to attend. Are we just as quick to answer these questions as we were when we were children? Or do we now know less about what we want to be, since the options of occupation are much more vast and grand than what we thought it to be in the past? It wasn’t just between being a policeman, or a teacher, but what kind of police force they wanted to be in, what kind of level of teaching they wanted to choose, and so on and so forth. College is usually a critical time for students to learn the different aspects of professional and personal self-perceptions, competencies, attitudes, interests, and values of future careers. In fact, most college students list well after college career opportunities as one of theShow MoreRelatedPeter Singer s And Onora O Neill s Essay1566 Words   |  7 Pagesindividual. Singer used the child drowning on shallow pond story to illustrate his viewpoint. Many individuals have criticized the simplistic nature of the example and it’s discussed towards the end of the paper. Example is as follows, Assume you are walking past a shallow pond and discover a child drowning in it; you ought pull the child out. This may ruin the cloths or delay you from your commitments however that would be insignificant if you compare of losing the life of the child. Application of theRead MoreEssay on Abortion712 Words   |  3 PagesAbortion In America alone, approximately 1.5 million abortions are performed every year. That is about one abortion every twenty seconds, yet nothing is being done to reduce these numbers. Why does the law allow the murders of so many innocent babies to continue? The answer is simple, it shouldn’t. Abortion is wrong and should be stopped. This fact is apparent when one sees the suffering that abortion causes, not only to the baby, but to many others as well. All this damage can be so easilyRead More Human Cloning Should be Condemned Essays594 Words   |  3 Pagesreduces human beings to mere products of a manufacturing technique. When cloning is done to attempt a live birth, the child is produced and wanted not for his or her own sake, but because he or she will carry traits that someone else values and wants to replicate. When cloning is done to pursue medical research, the reduction of human life to a mere instrument is even more complete, for a new human being is created solely to be destroyed for his or her cells and tissues. Even if medical benefits could beRead MoreSummary Of The Lottery By Shirley Jackson And The Ones Who Walk Away1384 Words   |  6 Pagesbelieves the practice of locking a little boy away in a closest will benefit them to live happily and prosper. In â€Å"The Lottery† a town of people hold a yearly assembly where a person of the community is randomly chosen to be stoned for the hope of more crops in the fall. Each of the stories display sacrifice in their theme, as well as people in the community who believe that the practice of sacrifice is wrong, and the belief that the benefits for all come from pain and suffering of one single individualRead MoreShould Marijuana Be Legalized?890 Words   |  4 Pagesâ€Å"Regular marijuana use during adolescence, but not adulthood, may permanently impair cognition and increase the risk for psychiatric diseases, such as schizophrenia.† (1) May cause death. In similar circumstances, people who advocate against marijuana being legalized may talk about, how marijuana is a gateway drug and if marijuana is legalized than drug use among kids will increase drastically. The position that I just stated is wrong and here’s why. What if your son or daughter or mother is passing awayRead MoreFree Range Parenting Is Too Dangerous For Children1676 Words   |  7 Pagesand taken into supervision with their parents being warned in some ways as a consequence. So what makes kids walking home unsupervised such a nation-wide controversy? Free-range parenting. Nowadays, free-range parenting is quite a big issue as the world is changing so rapidly and is no longer the same world that parents in this generation could freely roam around in their own childhood. Some argue that free-range parenting is nothing more than a mere negligence over their children in that the worldRead MoreThe Evil of Human Trafficking996 Words   |  4 Pagestrafficking beyond mere smuggling. For thi s reason, the United Nations Office of Drugs and Crime has given a comprehensive definition of human trafficking under the article 3 of its Trafficking in Persons Protocol. According to the definition given by the United Nations, the act of human trafficking involves, recruiting, transporting, harboring, transferring or receiving of persons by means of fraud, exploitation, force, coercion, threat, deception, or offering of some kind of unlawful benefits (Potts, 2003)Read MoreThe Dilemma And Ethical Issues That Nurses Often Encounter Involving Children1350 Words   |  6 PagesIn Pediatrics, nurses are faced with many ethical challenges that reflect back to their own personal beliefs and values, in congruent with being able to provide the best quality care both ethically and legally for children without autonomy. When providing care for these patients who do not have autonomy, the nurse’s priority is to advocate and support the child and the families’ needs on a daily basis. The purpose of this ethical paper is to project the dilemma and ethical issues that nurses oftenRead MoreThe Pros and Cons of Human Cloning Essay601 Words   |  3 Pagesbiological clocks and even giving immortality. Regenerating human parts is one of these ideas. People who once had a defective heart or liver can now be given a new one grown from their own cells. People who are paralyzed can be given another chance by being able to grow nerve cells. Bald men dont might not have to be blinded by their own reflection, they say. Hair follicles can be taken and grown to give a man the full head of hair and cover up the glare. One of the more disturbing reasons to clone isRead MoreIts Hard Being a Single Dad in America1494 Words   |  6 PagesIt’s hard being a single dad in America An Annotated Bibliography Morin, Amanda. Fathers Raising Daughters: The Unique Challenges of Single Fatherhood. Education.com | An Education amp; Child Development Site for Parents | Parenting amp; Educational Resource. N.p., n.d. Web. 5 May 2013. According to the U.S. Census most recent information, there are approximately 13 million children living in single-parent households. That in itself isnt all that surprising, but heres something that is:

Sunday, December 15, 2019

Importance of Respect Free Essays

Why respect is so important in today’s society and what exactly is respect? Respect is a combination of appreciation, admiration as well as recognition of a person being worth something, or having earned a position because of their achievements. It could feel at times vague to some people, but most people understand and act with respect. In our modern world respect is sometimes confused with fear. We will write a custom essay sample on Importance of Respect or any similar topic only for you Order Now For instance, Gangs, they kill and they fight to earn respect from others but what they actually receive is fear. Domestic abusers might also beat their significant other and demand respect and once again what they receive is fear not respect. In these situations it could become a cycle, reason being; as fear of a person builds inside of someone they lose respect for them as a human being. As regard and respect go down the need of the abuser to force respect gradually goes up, leading to more abuse than ever before. We also can confuse the broad feeling of being in love with respect. When we meet this amazing person and we set them up on a pedestal and they seem to be perfect through our foggy vision of physical reactions. We do not really see who that person is but instead our ideas of what we want to see. This can be especially challenging because it is so easy to confuse the pedestal of perfection for respect. True respect is seeing someone’s, flaws and mistakes, and still feeling appreciation of their unique talents, gifts, insights and simply appreciating the person for being who they are. It is not expecting perfection nor is it beating someone into submission. President Obama is to me a great example of a person who commands respect. Not by using his position but simply by his thoughtfulness, intelligence and presence, unlike past politicians who appear to believe people should simply respect them because of their position and not who they are. Obama is a person I respect, not only because I am a soldier but because he is just simply a respectable human being. I don’t have to like everything a person does or agree with them to respect them. On the other hand, I can really care for someone and not respect them, it can work either way for anyone. Respect, like many things, begins within yourself. Before we can truly respect others you must like and respect yourselves. If we feel we are worthless, dumb, a terrible employee, too this or too that, we will often treat ourselves badly. We will beat ourselves up in our own mind. Then when we meet another person we usually fall in to one of two categories; the â€Å"I am not worthy† as we put our significant other on a pedestal or the â€Å"there must be something wrong with this person if they like me. † At first when we are in the beginning stages of the relationship, we are on cloud nine, all is right in the world and nothing else matters. The beginning stage can last a while and when we are in it we do not think about respect, we are consumed by passion. Over time, the beginning stage fades and if you do not respect or like yourself, the questioning and insecurity start to damage the relationship. When we love and respect ourselves we treat others with respect and we receive the same amount of respect in return. When you really take a moment to think about treating other individuals with respect, it can solve so many issues. When we respect another person, we can begin to trust them to handle the truth in the long run so you should always be honest, trust their judgment in all aspects of life and you should and will demand that other people treat you with the same amount of respect in which you have treated that person or people with. You should always let other people such as, your boss or a fellow coworker know when you are running late and why you are running late, have made a mistake or think that you may have made a mistake , violated an agreement or just need time to be alone and collect your thoughts. When you are showing your respect to someone you should always listen to what they have to say and don’t blame them for your issues, or doubt their opinion on something you have asked for their opinion on. So many relationship, co-worker, and leadership challenges would be so much easier to deal with if you would just take a moment to think about the respect we have for other people and demonstrate that in our actions. This respect goes beyond the workplace, primary relationships, and acquaintances. It extends to the manner in which you’re going to be treated, depending on how you’re treating other people. Respecting time that someone has have set aside for you and giving that other person room for them to complete their tasks. If you respect every person you’re involved with, whether it be at your workplace, home, or just simply socializing at an event. That person will treat you with the same amount of respect, as you have treated them with. The same rules apply when you are at your place of work, communication, honesty and consideration are given out of respect and co-workers relationships can flow a whole lot more smoothly. In my experience when my superior in my workplace is speaking with me, and that person treats me with respect and I treat that person with respect then things work a whole lot more smoothly and everyone is happy. When any living person ignores agreements, pushes boundaries and just in general acts with disrespect towards another person, it is hard and challenging to all involved. When you withhold the truth, Manipulate, or Lie, you might as well be saying I don’t respect that person whether they are in a position of leadership or otherwise. They might think and feel that you can’t handle the truth. That person might also think you do not trust them to get their tasks accomplished and that you don’t trust that they will stand by you through the challenges in any given situation. The challenge with this is that when you don’t live up to the expectations you have promised to abide by, you could become angry and blame that other individual for not being what you might have thought they were. Looking at relationships between co-workers I have witnessed, including my own, the most successful were undeniably people who held each other with great respect. This is as true of business partnerships as well as personal relationships and even parents with their child or children. This is not to say they don’t fight or face challenges in relationships but rather these relationships have a grounded base of respect to help get through the challenges that they might encounter together. When you come from a place of respect, for instance, The United States Military, you do not give stipulations or make demands to be set into stone, you’re going to negotiate with consideration for your partner, co-workers and your own needs and feelings. To respect someone is also to respect their ideas, intelligence, individuality, goals as well as their personal preferences and who they are inside, as a person Life is wonderful but respect is the glue that can allow all different kinds of relationships to grow stronger, more trusting and more confident. Respect also allows everyone to retrieve companionship, understanding and support to make it through the challenges of life. Respect is crucial to lasting relationships, whether it be a work relationship or a personal relationship and also it is crucial to good partnerships, to good business and to build a better community and economy. How to cite Importance of Respect, Essay examples

Saturday, December 7, 2019

Organization Man University Pennsylvania †Myassignmenthelp.Com

Question: Discuss About The Organization Man University Of Pennsylvania Press? Answer: Introducation Organizational behavior is a strategic system of management in an entity. It is outlined as the study of how people interact within groups to create an efficient business environment. The organizational behavior is the scientific approach that explains the social behavior within the business enterprise. Consequently, it implies the study of knowledge of how individual members of the organization act within the working groups of the organization. Organization Man is explained as a person who has dedicated his or her personal life to the demand of the business organization he or she works(Whyte, 2013). Organizational members are believed to devote their personal life and work towards achieving the set organizational standards, especially when they are group together to form teams. William Whyte has explained the concept of organizational behavior through his book about Organization Man. William Whyte embraces organizational behavior in an angle that could be understood by explaining the interaction of one person with the others within the organizational structures. The organizational behavior according to William Whyte endorses a better understanding of OB in relation to different individuals within the organization. Currently, the business environment is changing due to different factors. For instance, technology has greatly affected how organizational activities are conducted(Burke, 2017). This contemporary issue in business tends to affect how people interact within the organization. Technology affects the social and cultural behavior of organizational members. Organization Man, implies the impact of individuals to the whole organization. William Whyte explains of a behavior of IBM managers, that they were dark-blue suit, white shirts and dark ties. The att ire the managers wore was representing individuals who have dedicated their life to the organizational operations (Whyte, 2013). The activities of one individual are considered to define the driving force of positive organizational behavior. Like the IBM and Ford Company, Organization Man defines the success of the organization. The organizational behavior in an organization allows individual members to understand themselves in a better way. Individuals in an organization tend to develop good and friendly relationship between themselves. Better relationship between individual encourages a favorable and proper working environment(Luthans, et al., 2015). Organization Man concept allows the management to implement on different measures and approaches that could harm the organization. Organizational behavior is a strategic management approach that is used by the management to improve the performance of the firm. Motivation is a component of management that certifies how individual perform their activities in the organization. Motivation as a fundamental element of success in an organization tends to create a different business environment to the organization. Organization Man works better and improves their performance because of the better working environment(Pinder, 2014). Organization behavior allows the management to motivate employees to improve their performance, this is directed towards improving the general operations of the organization. The Organization Man differ from different people within the organization, therefore, it allows the management to apply indispensable motivational tools that are in accordance with the individual behavior in the organization(Whyte, 2013). The strategic goals and objectives of a business organization are achieved by implem enting motivational aspect, where organizational managers are advised to make motivation to be part of the management approach. Human Behavior is defined as how individual members behave in the organization. The most important variable factor of determining the human behavior in an organization is how individual members dedicate their time to perform their roles in the organization. Organizational Behavior and Organization Man are the organizational theoretical concept that defines the behavior of individuals in the organization(Borman, 2014). Organizational individuals may have behaviors that are influential to the organization. Competition between organizations allows organizational members to embrace positive behavior promote the performance of the organization, and thus allows the organization to gain competitive advantage in the business environment(Wagner III Hollenbeck, 2014). Therefore, organizational members are believe to embrace and devote those behaviors that will allow the organization to gain competitive business advantage in the market. Organizational behavior contributes towards creating a he althy business environment, where Organization Man acts as the basic element. Organization Man according to William Whyte is relevant to the current business environment. This is because it defines how people use their skills and knowledge to achieve the set strategic goals and objectives. Individuals in an organization are having variety of skills and knowledge that are relevant to the organizational activities(Robbins Judge, 2013). Organization Man is relevant in the current business environment since it allows the management to gain knowledge of how to utilize the available human resource based on the skills they process. The managers encourage their employees to form groups, these teams are made up of individuals who have same skills(Harwiki, 2016). The groups are allocated some tasks that need to be solved. Therefore, Organization Man concept allows the managers to understand ways of utilizing human resource management within the organization, as they move towards achieving the strategic goals of the organization. Therefore, William Whyte explains Organization Man as a fundamental theoretical concept that defines how people behave in an organization. Organization Man significantly validates the impact of one individual to the organization. Change in business environment is contributed by aspect such as motivation, human behavior and competition between the organizations. Organizational behavior in an organization depends on how one individual will endorse his or her behavior to the organization. Mangers are advocated to encourage employees to embrace behaviors that will positively influence the organization. Organizational members are also mandated to dedicate their personal life to the organization, as they will contribute towards the success of the organization. References Borman, W., 2014. Organizational citizenship behavior and contextual performance: A special issue of human performance.. s.l.:Psychology Press.. Burke, W., 2017. Organization change: Theory and practice.. s.l.:Sage Publications.. Harwiki, W., 2016. The Impact of Servant Leadership on Organization Culture, Organizational Commitment, Organizational Citizenship Behaviour (OCB) and Employee Performance in Women Cooperatives. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences. s.l.:s.n. Luthans, F., Luthans, B. C. Luthans, K. W., 2015. Organizational behavior: An evidence-based approach. IAP. s.l.:s.n. Pinder, C., 2014. Work motivation in organizational behavior.. s.l.:Psychology Press. Robbins, S. P. Judge, T., 2013. Organizational behavior..Accounting. Wagner III, J. A. Hollenbeck, J. R., 2014. Organizational behavior: Securing competitive advantage. .. s.l.:Routledge. Whyte, W., 2013. The organization man. University of Pennsylvania Press.. s.l.:s.n.

Saturday, November 30, 2019

Medieval Food free essay sample

Medieval food Medieval foods and diets depended much on the class of the individual. For those living in the manor house, there was a wide range of foods available. Fowl such as capons, geese, larks, and chickens were usually available to the lord and his family. They would also dine on other meats; beef, bacon, lamb, and those living close to water may have regularly dined on salmon, herring, eels ands other fresh water fish. Fish would either be sold fresh or smoked and salted. Wealthy society could afford large quantities of milled flour and other meals made from grain. Dairy products such as cheese and butter could be seen on the manor table. Medieval peasants, on the other hand, had a much simpler diet available to them. Most of the wheat they harvested went exclusively to the market, and peasant breads were made from barley and rye, baked into dark heavy loaves. We will write a custom essay sample on Medieval Food or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Ales made from barley would quaff the thirst, as would water drawn from the well, sweetened with honey. Peasant society got what little proteins they could from peas and beans that would be added to bread and pottage. Pottage was often favored over bread, because it did not require the grains that the miller guarded closely. Onions, cabbage, garlic, nuts, berries, leeks, spinach, parsley were some of the foods that would combined to make thick soup. Raw vegetables were considered unhealthy and rarely eaten, but anything that could grown, with the exception of known poisonous plants, were added to the mix. Lucky families may have added salt pork or fatty bacon for flavor and protein. Poorer society depended on these simple foods for survival. It was ironic that after the Black Death ravaged societies, even the poor could find wheat available. Medieval diets lacked vitamins A, C and D and were not high in calories, making the regular drinking of ale a necessity for most. The only positive part of these diets, were that they were somewhat heart-smart; low in fat and high in fiber. But the medieval world was usually a very hungry one. |

Tuesday, November 26, 2019

Charles The First Essays - Roundheads, Knights Of The Garter

Charles The First Essays - Roundheads, Knights Of The Garter Charles the First The king, Charles the First, actions were legitimate, under the ideology he ruled with, absolutism. Though never stating it Charles the First, justified by his wife, was an absolutist. So from his perspective his practices are not at fault, and that is the bias this editorial will be written from, the viewpoint of someone who believes the king should be an absolute Monarch. What Oliver Cromwell, a majority of Parliament, and the Parliamentary forces did was a direct violation of the King's power. To take a quote from Louis the XIV, "L'?tat, c'est moi", a phrase meaning "I am the state", is a phrase that could be used to describe the absolutist rule that Charles the First was supposed to have. But actions taken by adversaries of the King and Country, including Civil War, attack on English troops, trespassing, treason, arresting the King, having soldiers march on parliament, and murder of King were treasonous actions against the King and consequently against the Country of England. Because as mentioned earlier in reference to the King, "L'?tat, c'est moi". So any crimes against the King are against the state. Making all who were involved in the fight against the king in the civil war are basically defeating the idea that it was a civil war since by definition they were fighting against there own country, and being extremely treasonous at the same time. T o sum up my previous statements the King is the Country so any crimes against the King are against the Country So the English Civil war was in fact not a civil war but a separatist movement against the Country of England. With aims to establish a military rule and discriminate against those of the Catholic faith. Cromwell's followers were upset over many things and tried to change them, violating the king's power. Cromwell was upset over remnants of the Catholicism in Anglicans churches and he wanted those things removed. But he had no right to do that since the King is head of the Anglican Church a right established by Henry the VIII and thus Cromwell could not set church policy. They tried to apply laws to the King such has treason. Which they can not do since according to absolutism the king is above the law and can not be controlled by any person, organization, governmental body for such a thing could be a threat to the sovereignty of England itself. This makes sense in the following example. If the king were to be ever controlled by a group with sinister intentions then they could control the polices and laws that the King sets, giving them untold power over the destiny of England, that has you can see is why the king must rule above all others. Which leads me to my next statement. If the king is above the law he should have control over all those under the law which is why the king should be able to command parliament, another major gripe of Cromwell's. People were upset when the king takes land away from the people, well he had every right to has the absolute ruler of England, in addition these people should have been proud to be serving there country by giving up the land for the betterment of England. By now you may be asking what gives the king the claim to all this privilege. Divine Right does. What mortal man would ever question God's very own choosing, Oliver Cromwell did, making him a heretic too. In conclusion the English Civil war was nothing but an uprising lead by traitorous heretics out to question the King's Divine Right over England and satisfy there own cravings for power.

Friday, November 22, 2019

Battle of Chattanooga

With the situation worsening, President Lincoln made the Military Division of the Mississippi and placed Major General Ulysses S. Grant in command of all Union armies in the West. Moving quickly, Grant relieved Rosecrans, replacing him with Major General George H. Thomas, and engineer Major General William F. Smith to open a supply line to Chattanooga. After making a successful landing at Browns Landing, west of the city, Smith was able to link up with Thomas and open a supply route in October, which was known as the Cracker Line. On the night of October 28 and 29, Bragg ordered Lieutenant General James Longstreet to sever the Cracker Line. Attacking at Wauhatchie, the Confederate general was very mad. With a way into Chattanooga open, Grant began reinforcing the Union position by sending Major General Joseph Hooker with the XI and XII Corps and then an additional four divisions under Major General William T. Sherman. While Union forces were growing, Bragg reduced his army by sending Longstreets force to Knoxville to attack a Union force that was under Major General Ambrose Burnside. Having consolidated his position, Grant began offensive operations on November 23, by ordering Thomas to go on from the city and take a string of hills near the foot of Missionary Ridge. The next day, Hooker was ordered to take Lookout Mountain. Crossing the Tennessee River, Hookers men found that the Confederates had failed to defend a valley between the river and mountain. Attacking through this opening, Hookers men succeeded in pushing the Confederates off the mountain. As the fighting ended around 3:00 PM, a fog descended on the mountain, which gave the battle the name of The Battle Above the Clouds. To the north of the city, Grant ordered Sherman to attack the north end of Missionary Ridge. Moving across the river, Sherman took what he believed was the north end of the ridge, but was actually Billy Goat Hill. His advance was stopped by Confederates under Major General Patrick Cleburne at Tunnel Hill. He thought that a frontal assault on Missionary Ridge to be suicidal, Grant planned to envelop Braggs line with Hooker attacking the south and Sherman from the north. To defend his position, Bragg had wanted three rows of rifle pits to be dug on Missionary Ridge, with artillery on the very top. Moving out the next day, both attacks met with little success as Shermans men were unable to break Cleburnes line and Hooker was delayed by burned bridges over Chattanooga Creek. As reports of slow progress arrived, Grant began to believe that Bragg was weakening his center to reinforce his sides. To test this, he ordered Thomas to have his men advance and take the first line of Confederate rifle pits on Missionary Ridge. Attacking, the Army of the Cumberland, which for weeks had suffered taunts about the defeat at Chickamauga, succeeded in driving the Confederates from their position. Halting as ordered, the Army of the Cumberland soon found itself taking heavy fire from the other two lines of rifle pits above. Without orders, the men started to move up the hill in order to continue the battle. Though originally mad at what he perceived to be a neglect for his orders, Grant moved to have the attack supported. On the ridge, Thomas men advanced steadily, aided by the fact that Braggs engineers had accidentally placed the artillery on the actual crest of the ridge, rather than the military crest. This mistake stopped the guns from being brought to bear on the attackers. In one of the wars most dramatic events, the Union soldiers surged up the hill, broke Braggs center, and put the Army of Tennessee to rout. This battle finally ended in a Union win, which they were of course happy about, but even happier because of their loss at Chickamauga, so this win made them feel like it made up for their other loss. The victory at Chattanooga cost the Union 753 men that were killed, 4,7220 of the men in their troops were injured and 349 missing. The Confederate’s casualties were listed as 361 killed, 2,160 wounded, and 4,146 captured and missing. The Battle of Chattanooga opened the door for the invasion of the Deep South and the capture of Atlanta in 1864. In addition, the battle destroyed the Army of Tennessee and forced Confederate President Jefferson Davis to relieve Bragg and replace him General Joseph E. Johnston. Following the battle, Bragg’s men went back south to Dalton, GA. Hooker was sent out to pursue the broken army, but was defeated by Cleburne at the Battle of Riggold Gap on November 27, 1863. The Battle of Chattanooga was the last time Grant fought in the West as he moved East to deal with Confederate General Robert E. Lee the following spring. ? Bibliography †¢www. wikipedia. org †¢www. wiki. answers. com/ †¢http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/The_Battle_Of_Chattanooga †¢http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/First_Battle_of_Chattanooga †¢http://www. nps. gov/hps/abpp/battles/tn024. htm †¢http://www. battlesforchattanooga. com/

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Cultural Differences and People Management Essay

Cultural Differences and People Management - Essay Example This study shall discuss the aspects which make up this cross-cultural awareness and sensitivity. It shall also discuss the aspects of organisational life which are particularly influenced by cross-cultural differences. Body Accomplishing any work with the assistance of other people calls for the engaging flow of data in the workplace. However, in the current diverse work setting this is difficult to accomplish. Managers would often find themselves frustrated by employees who nod at everything they say without manifesting any clear comprehension of the instructions. However, culture is a major part of people’s behaviour on the job (Gardenswarts and Rowe, 2001). It dictates the way people talk with one another, the way they speak, how they manage conflicts, how they relate with the opposite sex or with other religions, and how they participate in office activities. There are various cultural norms which impact on a manager’s reactions, including hierarchy and status; gro ups versus individual orientation; time consciousness; communication; and conflict resolution (Gardenswarts and Rowe, 2001, p. 2). Managers who do not fully understand the impact of culture in the workplace often end up misinterpreting behaviours and creating a culturally divisive workplace. There are four cultural dimensions which apply to any organization. Hofstede (1980) mentions these as: power distance, masculinity/femininity; individualism/collectivism; and uncertainty avoidance. Individualism/collectivism refers to the relations between individuals and groups within the organisation (Hofstede and Bond, 1988). For highly individualistic societies, individuals often do not exist well in the collective setting as easily as those who are in collective societies and they are expected to be fend for themselves and not to consider other people for support. On the other hand, the more collectivist groups are part of a greater group who offer support to one another (Lowe, et.al., 1988 ). These societies function in a group structure in a family setting or large regional communities. The individualist or collective culture in the organisation impacts significantly in the management of the work setting, especially in instances when the culture of the organization or the corporation is individualist (Lowe, et.al., 1988). The burden of making such an environment more engaged in a multicultural set-up is on the manager. Masculinity/femininity within the work setting refers to gender roles in the workplace and how these genders are managed and accommodated in the work setting (Hofstede and Bond, 1988). There may be differences in the values placed on men and women with male values being more assertive and female values being more nurturing. In the workplace, the manager is often faced with issues which relate to gender discrimination, including homophobia (Lowe, et.al., 1988). The demand for the manager in these instances is to make the decisions based on non-gender re lated considerations or gender-based biases. Power distance as a cultural aspect of an organisation is based on â€Å"individual interactions and communication differentials between executive and employee† (Kaskel, 2010, p. 22). Humans have the ability to accept the hierarchical structure of most situations; other times, they cannot accept these situations. Individual interact

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

Computers and Marketing Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Computers and Marketing - Case Study Example The Guardian article â€Å"He sent 38 billion emails and called himself the Spam King. Then Bill Gates went after him† written by Wilson J and Johnson B in 2005, mentioned an incident in which Scott Richter and his Colorado-based company OptInRealBig.com are alleged to have been one of the world's biggest spammers. Microsoft and the New York attorney general, Eliot Spitzer, sued Mr Richter for $18m in 2003, accusing him of violating state and federal laws, after "spam traps" set by the software company netted some 8,000 messages containing 40,000 fraudulent statements (Wilson and Johnson 2005).  Ã‚  This paper analyses the validity of sending spam messages with the help of ethical theories of Deontologists and Utilitarian. Deontologists believe that some actions are wrong no matter what consequences follow from them. Deontology is an ethical system which has close association with Kantianism. While utilitarianism focuses on the outcomes of an action, deontology demands that the actions itself should be ethical; no matter what the outcome is. Sending spam messages will generate immense marketing opportunities for the sender; however it is not necessary that all the receivers take such messages as a blessing. In other words, spam messages are useful to the sender if the receiver did not grant permission to the sender.

Saturday, November 16, 2019

Professional Values and Awareness Essay Example for Free

Professional Values and Awareness Essay In this assignment I will identify issues that affect the care provided in a home for adults with learning disabilities. Using the case study format I will focus on the interpersonal relationships and identify the underlying factors that influence them, then provide explanations for these by applying established theories. Churton (2000:214) describes a case study as a detailed investigation of a single research area. The case study will form a unique representation of the individuals involved at the time they were observed. As a single study the outcomes may not be representative of all care homes, but it is reasonable to assume many issues may be similar. As a student I was able to observe both staff and clients in their normal routines. I was accepted as a member of the care team and took part in daily activities. This form of research is described in Giddens (1997:542) as Participant observation. Becker describe the role of the researcher as someone who watches the people he is studying to see what situations they ordinarily meet and how they behave in them (cited in Marsh I. 1996:124), however the by taking on a role within the group that justifies their presence the researcher acts as more than a passive observer and becomes a participant. As a stranger to the group my presence will have affected the behaviour of the clients and studies have shown that the presence of students affects the way that qualified staff work (Reed J Procter S. 1993:31). My own preconceived ideas of Learning disabilities and the staff and clients previous experience of students will all have contributed to the behaviour I witnessed. On my first day at the placement I was introduced to my mentor (the deputy manager). We discussed the homes basic philosophy and the clients disabilities. I was introduced to the nine clients, and the staff approximately 15. During this first meeting my mentor made me feel welcome and allayed some of my fears about the placement. Unfortunately other than two brief conversations this was the only time I worked with her over the six-week placement. The staff are mostly female with only four male staff. They were of all ages and came from a mix of races and religions, some single and others married with children. All of the staff are support workers and most have NVQ level 3 or are currently studying towards it. I found all the staff very friendly and felt welcome, but I also felt a like a spare part, as the clients were encouraged to do things for themselves, very little intervention was necessary. Record keeping, giving medication and supervising the clients at the many activities they attended were the main tasks. The days soon became very predictable with set activities and opportunities to be achieved. The slowness of the day meant that staff talked a lot, discussing personal matters as well as how they felt about the clients and their jobs. Conversation included issues around the low regard support workers had from the general public and other health care professionals, the quantity of paper work to be completed daily and the emphasis placed on it, little support and understanding from the management, and having to attend college in there own time. My personal performance was influenced most by the lack of a mentor. Without a mentor to shadow I would try to latch onto a member of staff only to find that we were on different activities or were at the end of their shift. My shifts and my mentors were not together, when I asked the manager if I could swap my weekend to the same as my mentors, she told me that there was no need for me to work with my mentor at all. I was left feeling very isolated. The need for student and mentor to work together as much as possible to build successful relationship is highlighted in Baillià ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½res Study Skills for Nurses (Maslin-Prothero1997:32). Good mentoring is a two-way process requiring willingness from both mentor and mentee to build a collaborative relationship (Ellis et al 1995:121, Ajiboye P. 2000:11). Formal mentoring is relatively new to nursing (Maslin-Prothero 1997:51), and is closely related to Project 2000 (Salvage J.1999:14). The ENB define mentors as an appropriately qualified and experienced first-level nurse/midwife/health visitor who by example guides assists and supports the student in learning new skills, adopting new behaviour and acquiring new attitudes (as cited in Quinn F. 1995:188). Mentorship has existed for centuries with references dating back to Greek mythology (Ellis R. et al 1995:109), and it is widely used for career development in business, where mentors are role models, talent developers and door openers(Tyson S. Jackson T. 1992:121). There are several theories on how mentoring works, most emphasise the mentor as a facilitator allowing the student to experiment while ensuring the safety of the patient/clients, and providing a developmental bridge between theory and practice (Ellis R. et al 1995:109). Communication and interpersonal skills are the foundations on which a successful relationship is built and are therefore essential skills in a mentor (Ellis R. et al 1995:121). However the mentor themselves may be the most important factor. A mentor is a role model good or bad. Hopefully the student will witness a high standard of practice and set their own standards similarly. But when the standard is low it depends on the students knowledge of the theory as to whether they choose to imitate the mentor or apply their own higher standard. Bandura (cited in Ellis R. et al 1995:116) describes this process as Social Learning Theory, a three-stage process. Stage 1 Observational Learning: Imitating a good role model Stage 2 Inhibitory/Disinhibitory Effects: bad practice rejected or imitated Stage 3 Eliciting Effect: good practices learned and core knowledge improved. The break down of the mentor mentee relationship on my placement may have been for variety of reasons, poor communication, unrealistic expectations or time constraints. Supernumerary students have time to observe and reflect, but mentors may have an already busy schedule and supervising students can become just another pressure (Reed J. Procter S. 1993:36). Students in this environment may find themselves being used as another pair of hands (Ajiboye P. 2000:11). Many texts cite good leadership of the manager as vital to forming an atmosphere conducive to learning (Quinn F. 1995:182). A good manager will find time to inspire staff to enthusiastically provide high quality care (Grohar-Murray 1997:125). In the philosophy of care/service values of the placement it states that we have a well trained staff who have achieved a NVQ in care or are working towards it (not referenced to protect confidentiality). However the staff studying the NVQ had to attend college in there own time. This caused resentment towards the management as the staff felt that the qualification was for the companys benefit, but at their expense. Tappen (1995:69) recognises that by allocating staff time to attend lectures or college days without them incurring financial penalties the outlook is changed from just gaining a paper qualification to an opportunity to develop skills and increase personal knowledge. Encouraging staff to develop new skills is a great motivator. Motivation has been described as the oil that keeps the machinery turning (Dell T. 1988:59) and is a key element in many leader/management theories. Many motivation theories are based around the concept of fulfilling needs. Maslow (1968 cited in Hogston R. Simpson P. 1999:295/303) devised a hierarchy with seven levels, the first level are basic physical needs such as food and water progressing up to more psychological needs of self fulfilment. Individuals climb the pyramid a step at a time motivated by fulfilment at the previous level (see appendix 1). Kafka (1986 cited in Tappen 1995:304) offers five basic factors for motivation, Economic security, Control, Recognition, Personal self-worth and Belonging. But unlike Maslow the five may be placed in any order, as one person may be motivated more by the need to belong than the need for money (see appendix 2). Self-esteem/worth and belonging are needs common to both Maslow and Kafka. If managers boost self-esteem by acknowledging good practice and recognising achievements they enhance the feeling of belonging. Without feedback staff often feel overlooked and isolated. To be constructive feedback should contain both positive and negative elements and be based on observed behaviour, given objectively it can highlight areas that need strengthening and increase motivation. Kron (1981 cited in Tappen R. 1995:420) described this positive feed back as a psychological paycheque. The need to belong affects students, when they are included in procedures, and given opportunities to express opinions and dont feel in the way they become part of the team. Being accepted boosts self-esteem and motivates learning (Oliver R Endersby C. 1994:94) Dell statement that people work harder for recognition than for money(Dell T. 1988:59) is supported by a study of the affect of incentives such as pay increases and shorter hours. When each incentive was implemented productivity was found to increase. When the incentives were removed and working conditions returned to normal it was expected that the productivity would fall. In fact productivity rose to the highest levels ever. Mayos conclusion was that being in the study had caused the group to bond (belong) and that the interest (recognition) showed by researchers had encouraged the workers to achieve the level they believed the researchers expected of them (Mayo E. 1933 cited in Barratt M. Mottershead A. 1999:74). If the security of belonging is absent self-esteem deteriorates which can lead to an increase in complaints and fatigueand absenteeism is likely to rise(Barratt M. Mottershead A. 1999:73). Lack of appreciation and support are two of the ten factors cited by Tappen (1995:455) that contribute to burnout. As the most caring and most highly committed are often the ones most prone to burnout (Eisenstat Felner cited in Crawford J. 1990:48) its frequently linked to health care. Burnout is defined as, (Kozier B et al 2000:1387). an overwhelming feeling that can lead to physical and emotional depletion, a negative attitude and self concept, and feelings of helplessness and hopelessness There are many methods to prevent burnout. One of these I observed, and have been guilty of my self, is the ability to suddenly become deaf. For example one client would continually ask for a cup of tea, to which staff would respond youve just had one and the client would reply Ive just had one and walk away. But if the frequency of requests increased or they interrupted another activity staff would often pretend not to hear, they would ovoid eye contact and turn away. By ignoring the client it extended the periods between acknowledged requests. For the same reason this client was always last to receive his cup of tea when it was being made for the group. This coping mechanism denial is one of many established ways to deal with stress (Kenworthy N. 1996:91). In denial you reject the thing that is unacceptable choosing to believe it isnt there. Denial is very similar to repression where although aware of the feelings you block them out, Tappen suggest that this can leave the caregiver with a vague sense of unease towards the client. Having denied hearing the request staff would then repress their guilt, leaving them with an uneasy feeling towards the client. This practice while not acceptable, had no long-term affects on the client as he would simply ask again a few minutes later, however if all requests where dealt with in the same way it could become harmful to the client (Tappen R. 1995:11). Another behaviour I witnessed was the reliance on PRN medication; a different client was very vocal following staff around the home asking questions about her forthcoming blood test. After a couple of failed attempts to reassure her it was decided she needed PRN to clam her down. The staff had coped by rationalising the situation. Rationalisation uses one explanation to cover up a less acceptable one i.e. their reason for giving the medication was to calm the client down. But the real reason was it would stop her bothering them with questions. (Tappen R.1995:11). Often in learning disabilities carers see a clients failure to behave in an acceptable way or achieve targets as a personal failure (Brown H. Smith H. 1992:95). These failures or client losses are another factor that contributes to burnout (Tappen R.1995:455). Other factors often experience by learning disabilities cares also contribute to burnout such as low pay, discrimination and inadequate advancement opportunities. Learning disabilities are often referred to as the Cinderella of the Cinderella services(Parish C. 2001:13), and as such tend to attract the least skilled workers, who are given a low status even in relationship to carers in other fields (Brown H. Smith H. 1992:93). Care is traditionally seen as womens work and therefore unskilled and unworthy (Brown H. Smith H. 1992:162/166). This is reflected in the fact that care staff are predominately women working part time, earning low levels of pay and having few opportunities to advance their careers (Hudson B. 2000: 88). Care work is rarely undertaken solely for financial gain; often the motives are more altruistic (Dagnan D. 1994:127). A study into staff satisfaction found that in spite of low pay care staff found rewards in the close nature of the caring relationship (Hudson B . 2000:89). Recent government white papers NHS and Community Care Act and Valuing People aim to enhance the status of learning disabilities by reorganising the way that the service is provided (Beacock C. 2001:23), and give those working in social care a new status which fits the work they do (Hudson B. 2000:99). These proposals may ultimately improve the status of the service, but in the short term the changes are creating more paperwork, require new skills, and are leading to greater job insecurity. These factors are adding to an already stressful job (Hudson B. 2000:96). Studies found that the main causes of stress for care workers were the inability to provide service users with what they needed, accountability or responsibility without power, frustration at office politics and uncertainty about the future (Hudson B. 2000:90). Powerlessness and unresponsiveness to client needs added to too much paper work are more factors that can contribute to burnout (Tappen R. 1995:456). Care staff are under a great deal of pressure, in their daily work they face all of the ten factors that contribute to burnout. This must ultimately have an affect on the way care is provided. I have no doubt that the staff at my placement are genuinely caring people who do their best to provide a high standard of care for their clients. However sometimes the quality of care I witnessed reflected the pressures they were facing. Only when the attitudes towards care work improve will its status be increased. This would in turn see a rise in pay and a decrease in the stress felt by carers, which would have the end result of improving the care received by clients. References Ajiboye P. (2000) Learning partners. No Limits. Autumn 2000 pp.11 Barratt M. Mottershead A. (1999) Understanding Industry. 5th Edition. London, Hodder Stoughton. Beacock C. (2001) Come in from the cold. Nursing Standard. Vol.15 no.28 pp.23 Brown H. Smith H. {Editors} (1992) Normalisation: a reader for the nineties. London, Routledge. Churton M. (2000) Theory and Method. London, Macmillan Press Ltd Crawford J. (1990) Maintaining Staff Morale: the value of a staff training and support network. Mental Handicap. Vol. 18 June pp.48-52 Dagnan D. (1994) The Stresses and Rewards of Being a Carer in a Family Placement Scheme for People with Learning Disabilities. British Journal of Learning Disabilities. Vol.22 1994 pp.127-129 Dell T. (1998) How to Motivate People: a guide for managers. California, Crisp Publications Inc. Ellis R. Gates R. {Editors} (1995) Interpersonal Communication in Nursing: Theory and Practice. Kenworthy N. London, Churchill Livingstone. Grohar-Murray M, DiCroce H. (1997) Leadership and Management in Nursing. 2nd Edition. Connecticut, Appelton and Lange. Giddens A. (1997) Sociology. 3rd edition. Cambridge, Polity Press. Hudson B. Editor (2000) The Changing Role of Social Care. London, Jessica Kingsley Publishers Ltd. Hogston R, Simpson P. {Editors} (1999) Foundations of Nursing Practice. London, Macmillan Press Ltd. Kenworthy N, Snowley G. (1996) Common Foundation Studies in Nursing. 2nd Edition. Gilling C. Singapore, Churchill Livingstone. Kozier B. Erb G. Berman A. (2000) Fundamentals of Nursing: concepts, process, and practice. Burke K. 6th Edition. New Jersey. Prentice-Hall Inc. Marsh I. (1996) Making sense of society: an introduction to sociology. London, Longman. Masllin-Prothero S. (1997) Baillià ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½res Study Skills for Nurses. London, Hardcourt Brace and Company Ltd. Oliver R. Endersby C. (1994) Teaching and Assessing Nurses: a handbook for preceptors. London, Baillià ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½re and Tindall. Parish C. (2001) Take the reins. Nursing Standard.Vol.15 no.29 pp.12-13 Quinn F. (1995) The Principles and Practice of Nurse Education.3rd Edition. Cheltenham, Stanley Thornes (Pulishers) Ltd. Reed J. Procter S. (1993) Nurse Education A reflective approach. London, Edward Arnold. Salvage J. {Editor} (1999) Nursing Times Student Pack. London, Nursing Times. Tappen R. (1995) Nursing Leadership and Management: concepts and practice. 3rd Edition. Philadelphia, F. A. Davis Company. Tyson S. Jackson T. (1992) The Essence of Organizational Behaviour. Hemel Hempstead, Prentice Hall International (UK) Ltd. Bibliography Bartlett C. Bunning K. (1997) The Importance of Communication Partnerships: A study to investigate the communicative exchanges between staff and adults with learning disabilities. British Journal of Learning Disabilities. Vol.25 (1997) pp.148-154 Brigham L. Atkinson D, (2000) Crossing Boundaries, Change and Continuity in the History of Jackson M, Rolph S, Walmsley J. Learning Disability. Plymouth, BILD Publications. Booth T. Simons K. (1990) Outward bound: Relocation and community care for people with Booth W. learning difficulties. Buckingham, Open University Press. Clegg A. (2000) Leadership: improving the quality of patient care. Nursing Standard.Vol.14 no.30 pp.43-45 Clissett P. (2001) The Effectiveness of NVQ Training. Nursing Management. Vol. 8 no. 1 pp.11-13. Clutterbuck D. (1991) Everyone needs a Mentor: fostering talent at work. 2nd Edition. London, Institute of Personnel Management. Dinsdale P. (2001) Community spirit. Nursing Standard. Vol.15 no.39 pp.14 Gray J. (2001) Inside out: Analysis of the difficulties surrounding participant observation. Nursing Standard.Vol.15 no.31 pp.51 Hattersley J, Hosking G, (1987) People with Mental Handicap: Perspectives on intellectual Morrow D, Myers M. disability. London, Faber and Faber Ltd. Hill M. {Editor} (2000) Local Authority Social Services: an introduction. Oxford, Blackwell Publishers Ltd. Kroese S. Fleming I. (1992) Staffs Attitudes and Working Conditions in Community-Based Group Homes of People with Mental Handicaps. Mental Handicap Research. Vol. 5, no.1 pp 82-91. Moore S. (1987) Sociology Alive Cheltenham, Stanley Thornes (Publishers) Ltd. Oliver M. Barnes C. (1998) Disabled People and Social Policy: from Exclusion to Inclusion. London, Longman. Quinn E. (2001) Stressed out? RCN Magazine. Spring 2001 pp.14-15 Sarantakos S. (1998) Social Research. 2nd Edition. London, MacMillan. Wilson J. (1994) The Care Trade: a picture of health. Lancaster, Quay Pulishing Ltd.

Thursday, November 14, 2019

Christopher Marlowe Essay -- essays research papers

Christopher Marlowe   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã¢â‚¬Å"Comparisons are odious†, was once said by Christopher Marlowe in Lust’s Dominion, Act iii scene4. Christopher Marlowe has been identified as the most important Shakespeare’s predecessors. He was born in Canterbury, England, on February 6, 1564 and then baptized at St. George’s Church, Canterbury, on February 25, 1564. Marlowe was the eldest son of John Marlowe, a shoemaker and Katherine Arthur, a Dover girl of yeoman stock. Christopher’s intermediate family and extended family had a reputation of getting in trouble with the law. His sister was known for being a selfish person seeking the unjust vexation of her neighbor’s, while his father was always continually engaged in lawsuits containing debts.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Christopher Marlowe entered the King’s School at Canterbury in 1579. There he held a scholarship requiring him to study Ministry. The school was a canter of theatrical interests. It contained a large library filled with a number of volumes which have been claimed as sources for Marlowe’s plays. In 1584, Marlowe received a Bachelor’s of Arts Degree. Following that, in 1587, he had received a Master of Arts Degree. Shortly after receiving his Master’s degree, Marlowe went to London. There he was part of a circle of young men which were: Rawley, Nashe, and Kyel. By 1587, his first play was â€Å"Tamburlaine the Great†, had been performed on stage. As a result of his first play, Marlowe has started getting ...

Monday, November 11, 2019

Stroop Ia

An experiment investigating the effects of interference on speed estimates during the Stroop task Nicharee Thamsirisup (Nid) IB Psychology Standard Level Abstract: This experiment is to investigate the effect of color interference in speed estimates of the Stroop task which was first researched by John Ridley Stroop in 1935. This can be investigated by seeing the time difference between the task of identifying colors when color words are printed in the same color as their semantic meaning (test #1) and when they are printed in different colors as their semantic meaning (test #2).The research hypothesis is that the average time will be higher in test #2 because of the interference in the color detection task. The experiment uses independent measures and opportunity sampling of bilingual students aged from 16 to 18 years old. The results supported the hypothesis since the participants who did test #2 took 8. 8 seconds in average longer than participants who did test #1. Introduction Th e aim of this study is to investigate the effect of interference on speed estimates during the Stroop task.The Stroop task was first experimented by John Ridley Stroop in 1935. The Stroop Effect involving the Stroop task refers to a phenomenon in which it is easier to say the color of a word if it matches the semantic meaning of the word. Stroop (1935) began investigating the phenomenon of interference by using a color-naming task. The experiment was called â€Å"â€Å"The Effect of Interfering Color Stimuli Upon Reading Names of Colors Serially† in which he conducted on seventy college undergraduates (14 males and 56 females).In the experiment, the participants were to do two tests, one test is with a list of words printed in black and another test is with a list of words printed in colors (red, blue, green, brown and purple) different from its name (e. g. blue printed in red). The colored words were arranged so that each color would appear twice in each column and row and no color were used succeeding each other but the words were printed in equal number of times in each of the other four colors (e. g. the word ‘red’ printed in blue, green, brown and purple inks or the word ‘blue’ was printed in red, green, brown and purple inks).Participants were asked to read the words as fast as possible and correct any possible mistakes. Results show that it took the participants an average of 2. 3 seconds longer to read 100 color names printed in different colors than to read the same words printed in blank1. Schneider and Shiffrin (1977)2 explained this phenomenon in terms of â€Å"automatic processing† where in the experiment of Stroop, reading skills are automatically triggered and intrude upon the intentional process of color detection task. Automatic processing occurs with very few to none conscious resources.Logan (1990)2 also stated that automatic processing can develop through practice as it will require less effort or th oughts and becomes more rapid to retrieve the appropriate responses to the stimulus. These automatic thoughts can be retrieved by accessing the ‘past solutions,’ for example, children will first use their fingers to do simple addition (e. g. 1+1=2), however, as more practice occurs, they will be immediately able to answer it just by seeing it within a second with no attention required. Design:The experiment used independent measures (participants only take part in one of the two tests) which reduced the practice and made it more difficult to speculate the aim of the study. In test 1, the incongruent condition, participants were asked to read a list of different words of the colors printed in different colors to their semantic meanings (e. g. the word BLUE printed in green ink). In test 2, the congruent condition, participants were asked to read a list f different words of the colors printed in the same color as their semantic meanings (e. . the word BLUE printed in blue ink. ) Also when they made a mistake, they had to correct it. The dependent variable is the time taken for the participants to read the list. The controlled variables include the font of the words, the number of words per test and the size of the paper used to present the list of words to the participants. The participants were given the consent form and were told about the procedures in the experiment before starting. Participants were allowed to withdraw at any point during the experiment and after completion f the experiment, they were given a debriefing note and the ability to choose whether they want their results to be used or not. The debriefing note and consent form will be attached in the appendix section. Participants: The participants in my experiment include 30 international students (15 males and 15 females) and they will be grouped into two conditional groups: incongruent condition and congruent condition where they will be presented with a list of 20 words specific f or that condition. The target population is bilingual adolescents with the age range of between 16 to 18 years old.The method of selection of participants was by using sample of opportunity because of the limited time given. These participants will be randomly assigned into the two groups or meaning that one person will do only do one test. Materials: * Test #1: List of 20 Congruent words (on one paper) * Test #2: List of 20 Incongruent words (on one paper) * Stop Watch * Pencil * Paper * Consent form (attached to the Appendix) * Debriefing Note (attached to the Appendix) Procedure: 1. Participants will do one of the two tests and will be informed about the instructions involving the task 2.The participant will be asked to sign the consent form of whether or not they would want to participate in the experiment 3. Instructor will present the participants with the list of 20 words (participants need to correct themselves when a mistake is made) 4. Participants will start reciting the words when they are instructed to or when the instructor has started timing 5. The time will stop when the last word is recited 6. After the experiment, participants will be debriefed about the Stroop Effect and the other theories being investigated 7. Participants have the right to allow or withdraw their results from the experimentResults: In Test #1, the mean for the participants to complete the stroop task where the color of the ink is the same as its semantic meaning is 13. 6 with a standard deviation of 2. 2. The time ranges from the fastest time which is 10. 6 seconds to the slowest time which is 18. 2 seconds. In Test #2, the mean for the participants to complete the stroop task where the color of the ink is different from its semantic meaning is 22. 4 with a standard deviation of 4. 1. The time ranges from 16. 1 to 31. 3 seconds. The mean and the standard deviation are taken into account because it is assumed that the results will form a normal distribution.The mean is the average time of all the time of the participants and the standard deviation is the measure of how spread out the numbers is from the mean. The median and the range are not taken into account. Test Number| Mean| Standard Deviation| 1| 13. 6| 2. 2| 2| 22. 4| 4. 1| *The procedures for finding the mean and standard deviation are in the appendix Discussions Discussion of Results: Even though there were variations from the original Stroop experiment, it is able to investigate, with high reliability, the effect of interference in speed estimates during the Stroop task.The results show accuracy with the Stroop task done in 1935 by John Ridley Stroop since there is a significant difference between the amount of time a person took to complete the task where the colors were congruent with their semantic meaning (Test #1) and where the colors were incongruent with their semantic meaning (Test #2). The participants took a longer amount of time to complete test #2 compared to test #1. The differ ence between the averages of these two tests is 8. 8 seconds. Most of them participants in Test #1 took around the same amount of time to complete the task as can be seen by the low standard deviation of . 2, but in test #2, the amount of time among the participants was more spread out (S. D=4. 1). One possible explanation for this is the participant’s level of English proficiency, since if a person is more fluent in English, he or she may be able to identify the colors more quickly as compared to a person who is not as fluent. The outcome of this experiment can be explained through Schneider and Shriffin’s theory of automatic processing where the participants in test #2 took longer time because the process of reading interfered with the color detection task.Since reading has become practiced very often, it is automatically activated without the person’s consciousness, therefore, it requires more attention for the participants in this group to correctly identify the colors without just reading the word. The participants in test #1 were able to identify the colors faster since after reading several words, the participants will read the words without any interference from the difference in the word’s semantic meaning. Limitations and Improvements: The results from the experiment have low generalizability since this experiment was conducted on bilingual students aging from 16 to 18 years old.There may be other factors which may cause the participants to identify the colors faster e. g. being an English native speaker. Some of the participants also didn’t correct themselves when they have misread the color so two seconds were added into some of the results (interrupting the participants and make them correct their mistake was avoided since this would impact the results even more). Some of the participants who did test #1 also started reading the word itself after seeing recognizing the pattern and ignoring the real task which is to identify the color. This can be improved by adding an incongruent word (e. g. he word BLUE printed in RED) into the word list of test #1 and informing the participants in the instructions so that the participants will concentrate on identifying the colors. To improve the sampling group, we can change the sample group to a wider range of age for example from 10-30 years old instead. Despite the limitations, the result is still accurate since there is a supporting theory and it agrees with the result of the Stroop task in the original experiment. APA List of References: 1. Stroop, J. R. (1935). Journal of experimental psychology. Studies of Interference in Serial Verbal Reactions,XVIII(6), (p647-649). . Hill, G. (1998,2001). Oxford revision guides a level of psychology. (p. 118) Oxford University Press. Appendix: Consent Form * I have been informed of the nature and procedures involved in the experiment * I understand that I have the right to withdraw at any point after the experim ent has begun * I will not be harmed in any way upon participating in the experiment * I understand that my identity will not be connected to my data and that all information I provide will remain confidential * I will be debriefed at the end and be able to know my resultsBy signing this form, I have read the above information and agreed to give my consent to participate in this experiment: Printed Name:____________________________ Signature: _______________________________ Debriefing Note You have just been tested on the Stroop task, producing the Stroop Effect whereby you read the word itself faster than you could identify the color you see. This can be explained through the theory of â€Å"Automatic Processing† in which the process of reading becomes practiced so often that it is automatically activated without you being conscious.The process of reading is automatically triggered because you are conditioned to reading and this interferes with the task of color detection. T hank you for your participation in the experiment. Instructions: After you have signed the consent form, in the following minutes, you will be presented with a list of 20 words. You have to read out loud the color that the words are printed (not the word itself) in order that they are presented. You will be timed while reading these words out loud. If you have made a mistake, please correct yourself before continuing the next word.You may start when you are ready. Materials: 1. 1. RED 2. GREEN 3. PURPLE 4. RED 5. BLUE 6. BROWN 7. BLUE 8. GREEN 9. BROWN 10. PURPLE 11. RED 12. BLUE 13. BROWN 14. PURPLE 15. GREEN 16. BLUE 17. RED 18. GREEN 19. BROWN 20. PURPLE List of 20 Congruent Words (TEST #1) 3. List of 20 Incongruent words (TEST #2) 21. RED 22. BLUE 23. PURPLE 24. BROWN 25. PURPLE 26. BLUE 27. GREEN 28. RED 29. BROWN 30. PURPLE 1. RED 2. BLUE 3. GREEN 4. PURPLE 5. BLUE 6. GREEN 7. BROWN 8. RED 9. GREEN 10. BROWN *The words were actually printed out in Times New Roman size 24 Raw d ata:Time for the Stroop task (sec)| Test #1| Test #2| 10. 6| 16. 1| 10. 7| 17. 1| 11. 2| 17. 5| 11. 7| 18. 4| 12. 2| 19. 9| 12. 2| 20. 5| 13. 3| 21. 1| 13. 4| 22. 5| 13. 8| 22. 8| 14. 5| 23. 8| 15. 1| 24. 1| 15. 2| 24. 4| 15. 9| 25. 5| 16. 4| 31. 3| 18. 2| 31. 3| Finding the Mean: Test #1 Using the formula x-=? xn where x– is the mean, ? x is the sum of all the terms and n is the number of terms x-=204. 415 x-? 13. 6 seconds Test #2 x-=336. 115 x-? 22. 4 seconds The mean was used since it is assumed that the population is a normal distribution Finding the Standard Deviation:For Test #1: Time (seconds) (x)| Mean (x-)| Deviation (d)(x-x-)| Squared Deviation (d2) (x-x-)2| 10. 6| 13. 6| (10. 6-13. 6)= -3| (-3)2= 9| 10. 7| 13. 6| (10. 7-13. 6)= -2. 9| 8. 41| 11. 2| 13. 6| (11. 2-13. 6)= -2. 4| 5. 76| 11. 7| 13. 6| (11. 7-13. 6)= -1. 9| 3. 61| 12. 2| 13. 6| (12. 2-13. 6)= -1. 4| 1. 96| 12. 2| 13. 6| (12. 2-13. 6)= -1. 4| 1. 96| 13. 3| 13. 6| (13. 3-13. 6)= -0. 3| 0. 09| 13. 4| 13. 6| (13. 4-13. 6)= -0. 2| 0. 04| 13. 8| 13. 6| (13. 8-13. 6)= 0. 2| 0. 04| 14. 5| 13. 6| (14. 5-13. 6)= 0. 9| 0. 81| 15. 1| 13. 6| (15. 1-13. 6)= 1. 5| 2. 25| 15. | 13. 6| (15. 2-13. 6)= 1. 6| 2. 56| 15. 9| 13. 6| (15. 9-13. 6)= 2. 3| 5. 29| 16. 4| 13. 6| (16. 4-13. 6)= 2. 8| 7. 84| 18. 2| 13. 6| (18. 2-13. 6)= 4. 6| 21. 16| n=15| | | ? (x-x-)2=70. 78| *The deviation can be found by subtracting the time by the mean of all the numbers (found earlier). The square deviation can be found by squaring the deviation and ? (x-x-)2 can be found by adding up all the squared deviation for different times. Using the formula for standard deviation: Where: = standard deviation ?= sum of x= each value in the set x-= mean of all values in the data set = number of value in the data set Standard Deviation= 70. 7815 ? 2. 2 For Test #2: Time Seconds (x)| Mean (x-)| Deviation (d) (x-x-)| Squared Deviation (d2) (x-x-)2| 17. 1| 22. 4| -5. 3| 28. 09| 17. 5| 22. 4| -4. 9| 24. 01| 18. 4| 22. 4| -4| 16| 19. 9| 22. 4| -2. 5| 6. 25| 20. 5| 22. 4| -1. 9| 3. 61| 21. 1| 22. 4| -1. 3| 1. 69| 22. 5| 22. 4| 0. 1| 0. 01| 22. 8| 22. 4| 0. 4| 0. 16| 23. 8| 22. 4| 1. 4| 1. 96| 24. 1| 22. 4| 1. 7| 2. 89| 24. 4| 22. 4| 2| 4| 25. 5| 22. 4| 3. 1| 9. 61| 31. 3| 22. 4| 8. 9| 79. 21| 31. 3| 22. 4| 8. 9| 79. 21| n=15| | | ? (x-x-)2=256. 7| Standard Deviation= 256. 15 ? 4. 1 Finding the Median: Since there is odd number of terms (15 terms), the median is the middle number which is number 8 when you organize the number in increasing order from smallest to largest: Test #1: 13. 4 Test #2: 22. 5 Finding the Range: The range is the difference between the largest and the smallest value of the data. Therefore, take the largest value and subtract with the smallest value. Test #1: 18. 2-10. 6 = 7. 6 seconds Test#2: 31. 3-16. 1= 15. 2 seconds Table: Median and Range of the two Tests | Median (sec)| Range (sec)| Test #1| 13. 4| 7. 6| Test #2| 22. 5| 15. 2|In Test #1, the speed or the time for the participants to compl etely read the words ranges from 10. 6 seconds up to 18. 2 seconds. The difference between the slowest and the fastest speeds (range) is 7. 6. The median for Test #1 is 13. 4 seconds. In Test #2, the speed ranges from 16. 1 seconds to 31. 3 seconds and the difference between the slowest and fastest speeds (range) is 15. 2. The median for Test #2 is 22. 5. * In test #1, most of the participants took around 13 to 14 and 15 to 16 seconds to complete the task . * In test #2, the histogram is skewed to the left where most participants spent from 16 to 26 seconds to complete the task.

Saturday, November 9, 2019

Hughes Promotes the African Civilization Essay

Still recognized as one of the literary giants of America, Langston Hughes played an important role as a writer and thinker of the Harlem Renaissance. This was an artistic movement of African Americans that arose during the 1920s to celebrate the lives and culture of Africans in the United States (â€Å"Langston Hughes†). Because most of the African Americans had been brought to the New World as slaves of white masters, it was poets and writers like Hughes, an African American man, that helped to change the perception of African Americans in the minds of the whites once slavery had been abolished. Hughes’ poems, â€Å"The Negro Speaks of Rivers† published in 1926, and â€Å"Negro† published in 1958, therefore depict African Americans as ordinary human beings like everybody else, and yet richer in culture and civilization than many others, seeing that they have participated in the construction of the great â€Å"pyramids,† mentioned in both poems (Hughes, 2007; Hughes). Hughes was direct and open about the fact that his writings were meant to uplift the conditions confronting Africans in the United States (Hughes, 1923). They had been slaves, so therefore the whites did not respect them enough even after the abolishment of slavery. â€Å"The Negro Speaks of Rivers† was published five years after the Tulsa Riot and during the Harlem Renaissance (â€Å"Race Riot, Lynchings, and other Forms of Racism in the 1920s†). â€Å"Negro,† on the other hand, was published at a time when racism was considered a bigger problem than before. In fact, during the 1950s racism was at the forefront of American thought (Lewis, 2002). Many battles were fought to set blacks equal to whites in the minds of all Americans. Hughes’ contribution of the 1950s, his poem â€Å"Negro,† was only different to the extent that it was an artist’s contribution. Countless other Africans were fighting on the streets of America to set things right once and for all. Both poems, â€Å"The Negro Speaks of Rivers† and â€Å"Negro,† are expressions of African American identity. The first poem begins thus: â€Å"I’ve known rivers†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Hughes). In the second as in the first, although the poet has made clear that the narrator is a negro – the poem, â€Å"Negro† begins with the words, â€Å"I am a Negro† (Hughes, 2007). Because the whites had been masters over African slaves, they were inclined to look down upon Africans. Since the whites were owners of property in America and certainly richer, the blacks longed to be like the whites. But, Hughes would like the Africans to feel at home in their own skins. With images of rivers as grand as of the Euphrates, the Nile and the Mississippi – the poem, â€Å"The Negro Speaks of Rivers,† reminds the African of his or her historical roots or the history of the great African peoples who have traveled across all of these rivers adding value to the historical streams of cultures. The poem has irregular, long lines without rhythm because it is making a basic point: the African soul is as deep as any human soul could be. The African individual indulges in deep thinking as he travels across ancient rivers. What he must dwell on is his own identity on foreign soil. Remembering the history of his civilization, he must keep in mind that life carries on. What’s more, the poet reminds his fellow African that the black race has survived despite all odds (Hughes). Because â€Å"The Negro Speaks of Rivers† was published during the peak of Harlem Renaissance, it refers to depth of the African soul, given that art is often understood as the voice of the soul and the Harlem Renaissance was all about promoting African art and culture in the United States. Using gentle images such as the Mississippi’s bosom â€Å"turning golden in the sunset,† the poet uses his emphasis on rivers to stand as a symbol for the depth of the African soul (Hughes). â€Å"Negro,† published during the 1950’s also mentions â€Å"depths† (Hughes, 2007). As in â€Å"The Negro Speaks of Rivers,† the depths mentioned by Hughes in both poems most likely refer to the depth of African knowledge too. After all, both poems refer to the history of Africans. â€Å"Negro,† with its sentence arrangements describing either what had happened to Africans or what they have done in the history of the African civilization – also makes mention of the experiences and/or skills that set Africans apart, for example, slavery and singing (Hughes, 2007). The poet represents all Africans in both his poems, â€Å"The Negro Speaks of Rivers† and â€Å"Negro. † What is more, both poems mention the fact that the Africans were part of the labor force that built the ancient pyramids. In â€Å"The Negro Speaks of Rivers,† it was the African who â€Å"looked upon the Nile and raised the pyramids above it† (Hughes). In â€Å"Negro,† the pyramid is said to have arisen under the African hand, implying that the African was greatly skilled even at the time of ancient pyramid construction (Hughes, 2007). The main difference between the two poems, â€Å"The Negro Speaks of Rivers† and â€Å"Negro† is, undoubtedly, the spirit of hope felt through the first poem versus the sense of despair mixed with hope in the second poem. Hughes must have composed â€Å"The Negro Speaks of Rivers† in a different frame of mind altogether. The poem clearly promotes the African American culture and art as originating in the deep history of humanity (Hughes). Although â€Å"Negro† makes mention of world history too, it does not necessarily promote African American art, apart from its reference to singing. The African American may be considered as more of a laborer or low paid worker than an artist in â€Å"Negro† (Hughes, 2007). Perhaps the poem was not written to promote African American art at all. As mentioned previously, the 1950s saw the whites and blacks of America fighting over the question of equal rights of Africans in almost all major areas of state functioning, including education. There were severe problems related to racism during this period of American history. Clearly, blacks were being looked down upon. It was in the mood of that hour that Hughes composed â€Å"Negro. † The poem speaks of the ordinariness of the African individual while describing the good uses that Africans have been made of, for example, in the construction of the â€Å"Woolworth Building† (Hughes, 2007). â€Å"The Negro Speaks of Rivers† is certainly not dismal or depressing like â€Å"Negro,† mainly because it does not make mention of slavery and victimization as the second. After all, Hughes is fighting against injustice toward African Americans in the 1950s. In the 1920s, his cause was entirely different. If â€Å"The Negro Speaks of Rivers† had made frequent mention of darkness as does â€Å"Negro,† the Harlem Renaissance could not have been considered a harbinger of hope (Hughes, 2007). References Hughes, L. (2007, Dec 2). Negro. Retrieved Mar 15, 2009, from http://amandafa. blogspot. com/2007/12/negro-by-langston-hughes. html. ————–. (1926, Jun 23). The Negro Artist and the Racial Mountain. The Nation. Retrieved Mar 15, 2009, from http://www. hartford-hwp. com/archives/45a/360. html. ————–. The Negro Speaks of Rivers. Retrieved Mar 15, 2009, from http://www. wmrfh. org/dcrews/index_files/Hughes_The%20Negro%20Speaks%20of%20Rivers. doc. Langston Hughes. America’s Story from America’s Library. Retrieved Mar 15, 2009, from http://www. americaslibrary. gov/cgi-bin/page. cgi/aa/hughes. Lewis, C. H. (2002). The Rise of the Civil Rights Movement in the 1950s. Retrieved Mar 15, 2009, from http://www. colorado. edu/AmStudies/lewis/2010/civil. htm. Race Riot, Lynchings, and other Forms of Racism in the 1920s. Retrieved Mar 15, 2009, from http://www. assumption. edu/ahc/raceriots/default. html.

Thursday, November 7, 2019

Compare and Contrast Poems by Sassoon and by Owen, how they bring out their treatment of war Essays

Compare and Contrast Poems by Sassoon and by Owen, how they bring out their treatment of war Essays Compare and Contrast Poems by Sassoon and by Owen, how they bring out their treatment of war Paper Compare and Contrast Poems by Sassoon and by Owen, how they bring out their treatment of war Paper Essay Topic: Poetry The horror of war influenced these two great poets to express their disgust in poems. They both, however use contrasting styles: Owen chooses to express his disgust and anger through poems that give the reader a precise picture of what the war was really like; whereas Sassoon was an officer who protested against the way that war was being portrayed at the time. Like Owen, he wrote poems that scorned people like Jessie Pope, who glorified war. Sassoon, who came from a privileged background, showed that after going to fight and getting an award for bravery, he hated war. He didnt like the attitudes that the other offers had upon the war and thought that they were unnecessarily prolonging it. After writing a public protest, he wrote poems that had a cutting sarcasm, which were intended to attack the officers with pejorative language. In It Doesnt Matter he uses sarcasm to great effect, mimicking the voice used by people when a soldier perhaps doesnt want to fight and they are trying to persuade him. The line Theres such splendid work for the blind; is particularly hard-hitting because it is fiercely telling the reader in a heavily laden sarcastic tone, that it is fine to have ones eyes taken away because there is good care for the blind, of course he actually means that it is not fine to have your eyes taken in war because of the pain and misery that will be suffered; Owen on the other hand, in Disabled chooses to show the harsh reality upfront. legless, sewn short at the elbow tells us exactly how the man is. This is where the two poets are different. Owen tends to give us the full brutality of what happens at war, raising the awareness of the public that it is not a game the biggest thats played but a bloody mess. Sassoon likes to target the officers that thought that is was a game, and sliced into their conscience and accused them of, in Suicide in the Trenches, driving someone to suicide, he makes them feel guilty. There are many similarities between Sassoon and Owen as well as differences. When their paths crossed at Craiglockhart Hospital, where Owen was sent for shell shock, and Sassoon for punishment because of his open protest. Owen who presented some of his poems greeted Sassoon, because he was well known as an author and poet. Sassoon helped Owen write some poems but Owen kept his style of creating, what can only be described as, brilliant, truthful and vivid imagery. This was most evident in Dulce et Decorum est when Sassoon helped Owen out. The similarities between them are that they both attack people who make war seem pleasant and fun, and some of the poems like Anthem for Doomed Youth where Sassoon helped Owen with rhythm and structure of the poems. If poems from Sassoon and Owen are compared, there are certain elements of their poems which have the same aim but do it in a different way: look at Does it Matter and Disabled and the two poets are trying to show the injuries suffered by soldiers and the way that they are victimised. Owen uses the sad tragedy of a young man with everything going for him loose all that he is: a fit footballer, a ladies man, independent, turned to legless and in a wheeled chair, to highlight the horror of war. He seems to be showing that even the innocent can be attacked by the dreadfulness of battle. He is very sombre in this poem and finds word which will make a reader screw their face up in the thought of what he has written, leap of purple spurted from his thigh. He enriches the poem with thick, sour and ghastly imagery, for example Hes lost his colour very far from here, Poured it down shell holes till the veins ran dry Sassoons approach to the same subject is coated with glossy sarcasm and heavy accusations towards his readers, making them feel guilty that people who get pushed out to fight without the slightest feeling that they might return with horrendous injuries. After all, does it matter? Losing your legs? For people will always be kind, Sassoons main targets are his fellow officers who had this kind of disgusting attitude, which Siegfried hated. He said once that he particularly wanted to upset blood-thirsty civilians and those who falsely glorified the war. Other poems that they wrote also dealt with the same kind of subject. Owen once again writes passionately in Exposure which is the poem that he uses most to show the conditions that soldiers had to go through, for example Pale flakes with fingering stealth come feeling for our faces using the personal we to tell his reader that he has been there and seen this, he is not making it up. Sassoon, on the other hand, uses the idea of an innocent, simple soldier boy very much like in Disabled and takes him into the winter trenches, cowed and glum and shows as Owen does in Exposure the hell where youth and laughter go. This ending line is completely contradictory. Youth and laughter are good things which should be sent to heaven, but instead they are sent to hell, which can only happen in war. The poor boy who committed suicide put a bullet through his brain because of the constant crumps and lice and lack of rum. It seems that he has gone mad. I personally think that if I was an officer reading Sassoons work, I would feel extremely guilty because I would probably be one of those who glorified war thinking that it didnt matter if people lost legs, because people will always be kind. But if I was a sixteen year old wanting to join the army to impress my girlfriend, and I read Owens accounts of the trenches, I would most certainly reconsider joining up.

Monday, November 4, 2019

Civil Rights in the United States Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Civil Rights in the United States - Essay Example This perception was the main reason to insist Hoover to use violence as a weapon to gain communists trust in the Civil Rights Movement. The origin of Civil Rights were established with a dual perspective in the wake of the Montgomery bus boycott, hoped to convince the students to join their organizations, as student branches or auxiliaries. It was in 1960s that under the influence of civil rights movement students chose to remain independent, establishing the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) which attracted hundreds of young men and women from across the country who were willing to risk their lives for freedom. Following passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965, civil rights activists increasingly turned their attention from the rural South to the urban North, and toward economic opportunity. (Plummer, 2003, p. 222) By the late 1960s it no longer advocated nonviolence or stood under the emblem of black and white working together. Instead, it called for black power. While some perceived this shift as a dramatic rejection of its core principles, others contend that the call for black power was consistent with the front line role that SNCC had played since its birth and its insistence that the nation speed up the pace of change. (Levy, 1998, p. 14) Civil Rights under Kennedy's era depicts the picture adopted as an organized approach, thereby attracting black southern support for his foreign and economic policies but Civil rights forces responded to Kennedy's lethargy by developing new ways to pressure him to live up to his promises. Most prominently, the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) announced that it would stage a freedom ride. This was not it; to make matters worse, Mississippi, with its long history of execution, lay ahead. The prospect of violence prompted the Kennedy administration to broker a deal with Mississippi whereby the governor promised to protect the riders from their moment of entry into the Magnolia State until their arrival in the state capital. In exchange, the Kennedy administration agreed to turn a deaf ear while state authorities whisked the riders from the buses ranging from trespassing to disturbing the peace. In spite of this deal, freedom riders kept traveling to Mississippi, knowing that they wou ld end up in one of the worst prisons in the nation and they remained successful in marking important juncture in the Civil Rights. (Levy, 1998, p. 45) With this much success in approving freedom from the government, one cannot ignore the efforts and role-played by media in promoting the concept of Civil Rights in United States by presenting several addresses of the leaders on civil rights. Like in 1963, it was due to the television media that President Kennedy delivered a major television address on civil rights, which is considered as one of the most powerful and important speech by a president on race relations since Reconstruction. It was due to the speeches conducted and showed through media that the nation was motivated to follow the principle of equality and was committed to a "worldwide struggle to promote and protect the rights of all who wish to be free". (Levy, 1998, p. 21) Women also not lagged behind and played a very prominent role in being recognized as Civil Rights freedom fighters. Women served as official representatives of local civil rights organizations and as behind-the-scenes

Saturday, November 2, 2019

The Dimensions of Inter-Professional Practice Essay

The Dimensions of Inter-Professional Practice - Essay Example The role of inter professional practice protective meal times in UK hospitals The term protected mealtimes can be described to imply periods within the hospital setting when there are completely no urgent issues or activities at hand. During these times, patients are able to take their meals without interruption and staffs are readily available to offer help to those who need it. Research shows that patients whose mealtimes are protected eat more and are better nourished with improved chances of recovery. Protected meal times can influence achievement of benchmarks including conducive environment, assistance to eat and drink, obtaining food, and food presentation, monitoring, and eating to promote health. Older people admitted to hospital have malnutrition on arrival and most of them are at risk of becoming malnourished or their current nutritional state worsening in hospital, if precautions are not taken. Facilitation of protected meal times Inter-professional working team should fa cilitate implementation of protected mealtimes through the following ways. First, is by ensuring that patients are served with all the three basic meals of breakfast, lunch and dinner. They have to follow each mealtime with a one hour rest period for interaction with visitors, relatives and supporters. The team should also alter the drug delivery time so that patients are given food only after taking their meals and allowed to have enough rest. No other activity should be scheduled during mealtimes to ensure that all patients dedicate their time to meals and no other business. The team should plan to enhance service delivery by recommending a balanced diet and enhancing availability of patient assistants to offer services to patients who are not able to eat by themselves or in need varying assistance. The team should recommend that an audit be carried out after every two weeks to verify whether these rules and procedures of protected meal times are being followed (Rolfe, Freshwater & Jasper 2001). The following measures will be taken by our inter-professional team: There should be medical staff moving rounds, radiology focusing lunchtime slots on other areas, nurse routine- nurses want to get everything done, junior staff reluctant to challenge visitors and staff. The areas intended to put more emphasis include surgical areas, considering how protected mealtimes will interact with theatre lists, and wards which have greater impact on other departments like radiology. This should be followed by an audit to measure and review success in all these areas. There should be an arranged meeting with the hospital management to collaborate and ensure that the whole process is implemented. The unique role of the Inter-professional officials in the Inter-Professional Practice team is both individual and collective in that it takes one’s own conviction and commitment compounded by knowledge and professional experience to mould together with others like minded profes sional colleagues in order to achieve a set collective objective; which in our context is superior delivery of service in protected

Thursday, October 31, 2019

Computer-Mediated Communication Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Computer-Mediated Communication - Essay Example Out of hundreds of SNSs, some of the most popular examples of this form of CMC include MySpace, Facebook, and Twitter which have become an integral part of daily practices for people around the world. Basically, the aim of this paper is to contemplate the efficacy and significance of SNSs as they form a very important example of CMC and then apply course concepts like online self-disclosure and disembodiment to them so as to explain how CMC functions or relates with the course concepts through SNSs. As mentioned above, SNSs support a variety of public interests and service like information sharing and networking as a result of which CMC has been made a lot easier on many levels. While some of such sites cater to a particular group of people who share same cultural or regional background, most sites typically cater to the needs of diverse audiences. In addition to this feature, there exists a difference in the way various information and communication tools are incorporated in differe nt sites as all SNSs do not offer the facility of online blogging or instant video/image sharing. One of the most interesting features of this example of CMC is that not only people who are already connected outside the computer world can take advantage of the facilities offered by such sites, but strangers are also facilitated a lot as most sites support them much in connecting easily based on similar set of interests and shared political, racial, or education views (Boyd and Ellison). Though SNSs imply the concept of networking hugely yet researchers suggest that this alone could not be considered as a solo feature which helps differentiating SNSs from other mediums of CMC like blogs and social support sites. This is because networking is neither the sole service nor the sole purpose of most of such sites rather educational and business purposes also remain significant. Though a lot of connections are made between people by this medium of CMC which might not be made otherwise, yet that could not be classified as the sole goal of SNSs. â€Å"What makes social network sites unique is not that they allow individuals to meet strangers, but rather that they enable users to articulate and make visible their social networks† (Boyd and Ellison). A lot of business deals and transactions are finalized online by using such sites for enhancing communication between parties from opposite ends of the world. Similarly, this forms a great means of CMC also because education is made a lot easier as owing to many lectures offered online by expert teachers, one does not necessarily have to attend colleges on a full-time basis now. Many academic and industry researchers have written a lot in the past years concerning the wide range of academic and social advantages offered by SNSs. These sites are capable of addressing many interests of the public when it comes to communication by using effective and handy communication tools like online blogging, mobile connectivity, an d video/image sharing. In addition to that, there are certain course concepts like online self-disclosure, disembodiment, and privacy management which help much in further understanding the significance of CMC. Anonymity and self-disclosure on weblogs creates much excitement for the bloggers online. This is because people can open up about their