Wednesday, July 31, 2019
The emerging scientific consensus is that we have little more than a decennary to brace planetary temperatures and forestall a rise of more thanA 2Ã °C ( compared to pre-industrial degrees ) in order to avoid ruinous and irreversible clime alteration ( UNFCCC 2009 ) . Fossil fuel-based energy Ã¢â¬â such as coal, crude oil and natural gas Ã¢â¬â is known to be the biggest cause of the clime alteration as it produces nursery gas emanations in the ambiance ( IPCC 2007 ) . Consequently, alternate beginnings of energy power with low C emanations are important to forestall worse effects of clime alteration. Several deductions are frequently attributed to fossil-fuel energy: environment debasement, wellness impacts, political struggles related to energy security, economic dependence for those states whose chief fiscal activity derives from the commercialization of oil or gas and mutuality on foreign energy, supply dazes. All these factors have made policy shapers, in developed and developing states, aware of the demand for a more diversified energy mix ( UNCTAD 2010, p.1 ) . However ; any option will non be free of deductions. All engineerings have impacts. In general, nevertheless, the deductions of the renewable engineerings are much smaller and more local than the normally big and planetary impacts of conventional energy engineerings. Alternative energy engineering refers to any beginning of energy intended to restrict or replace an environmentally harmful signifier of energy ( UNCTAD 2010 ) . These include renewables, such as air current, geothermic, solar, H2O, and biomass. Harmonizing to theA United Nations Conference on Trade and Development ( UNCTAD ) ( 2010, p.5 ) some of these are quickly going conventional beginnings of energy. At present, the low degree of technological development and high costs associated with most of them limit the extent to which they can be integrated into the planetary energy matrix on a important graduated table. However, states such as the United Kingdom and Brazil have proved leaders in the development of of import energy engineerings, accordingly heightening chances by diversifying the state Ã¢â¬Ës energy mix with a low C option. This essay will discourse critically the societal, economic and political deductions of a social response to climate alteration based around non-fossil fuel energy engineering utilizing two different instances as illustrations: the air current energy used in the UnitedA Kingdom and sugar cane used in ethyl alcohol and cogeneration production in Brazil. Although the two states have air current and biomass as portion of their energy mix, this essay does non mean to compare both energy engineerings. Alternatively, it will foreground the strengths and failings of each alternate energy. Since the UK must cut down 34 % of its nursery gas emanations by 2020, harmonizing to 1990 degrees ( HM Treasury 2010 ) , the authorities has decided to increase the entire sum of renewable energy used in the UK, lifting from a low base of 2 % today to 15 % by 2020 ( RenewableUK 2010, p.9 ) . To accomplish this, weave energy will play a important function in the energy mix, lending approximatelyA 30GW by 2020 ( Ibid p. 9 ) . The UK is good placed, holding amongst the universe Ã¢â¬Ës largest resources of air current, moving ridge and tidal energy. Harmonizing to theA RenewableUK ( 2010 ) there are more than 240 air current farms in the UK, with a sum of over 2,500A turbines, responsible for cut downing the state Ã¢â¬Ës C emanations by about 4.5A million metric tons per twelvemonth. Since catching Denmark in 2008 as the universe leader, the UK has more seaward air current energy capacity than any other state ( Ibid, p.19 ) . Although air current power has been seen as an of import non-fossil fuel energy engineering, holding blessing from scientists andA well-known NGOs, there are writers, such as DrA Etherington ( 2009 ) , who argue that Ã¢â¬Å" the drawbacks of air current power far outweigh the advantages. Wind turbines can non bring forth adequate energy to cut down planetary CO2 degrees to a meaningful grade ; what Ã¢â¬Ës more, wind power can non bring forth a steady end product, asking back-up coal and gas power workss that significantly negate the economy of nursery gas emanations Ã¢â¬ He besides mentions that it is being overly financed by consumers who have non been informed that their measures are lessening an industry that can non be cost-effective or, finally, favour the cause it purports to back up. However, similar critics could besides be perceived within general society Ã¢â¬â and this tendency will be further discussed subsequently. As Cottrell reminds us ( 1955, cited by Humphrey andA Buttel in 1982, p.148 ) , wind power was foremost harnessed with the canvas and was a significant power beginning for many societies. Yet, harmonizing toA Cowie ( 1998 ) , its usage, in theory, is rather simple. The air current turns a turbine that generates electricity ( Ibid p.152 ) without any toxic residue or radioactive waste. However, although the energy is merely generated when the air current blows, in the UK, where it is a countrywide engineering, while air current may drop at some sites, it really seldom stops blowing everyplace at one time, so it does non necessitate to be backed up, megawatt for megawatt. Harmonizing toA Milborrow ( cited by Friends of the Earth et al. , p.2 ) among the other energy options, air current power is the energy engineering with fewer leanings to sudden failure. Another of import point to be considered is that air current power besides generates proportionately more high quality skilled occupations than any other energy sectors. A study produced by Friends of the Earth, Greenpeace, WWF andA RSPB ( 2009, p.3 ) says that there are already 400,000 people working in the wind-energy sector worldwide and this could make one million by the terminal of 2010. The Department of Trade and Industry has estimated that Round Two of offshore air current developments entirely could convey a farther 20,000 occupations for Britain ( cited byA BWEA 2006, p.4 ) . Furthermore, through embedded coevals ( BWEA 2006, p.4 ) , wind energy can cut down the distance over which electricity has to go, intending less electrical losingss in transmittal and distribution, hence ensuing in energy nest eggs. The environing land can besides be used for conventional agribusiness, which is another benefit for the local community. Environmental deductions related to bird migration, air force per unit area on chiropterans or harm to home grounds and wildlife in the country where windmills are built, have frequently been discussed on web logs and cyberspace web sites ( BBC News 2008, SBWT, Country Guardian ) as a concern of the local community. Similarly, noise, landscape pollution, telecasting response intervention and jobs with radio detection and rangings are repeatedly identified ( BWEA 2006, Jones and Eiser 2010 ) by local populations Ã¢â¬Ë society as caused by air current farms. Overall, surveies ( Blanco and Rodrigues 2005 ; Friends of the Earth et Al. 2009 ; A UNCTAD 2010 ) have shown that the impacts of air current energy on local communities is positive. This is particularly true in footings of diversifying the economic base, offering higher income to the local population through the rent received by the proprietors of the land where the turbines are located Ã¢â¬â frequently public land Ã¢â¬â and a general encouragement to the economic system through the multiplier consequence ( DTI 2005, p.5 ) . As Devine-Wright ( 2007 ) has claimed, air current power has been by far the most socially combative renewable energy engineering to day of the month. The DTI ( 2005, p.30 ) has besides acknowledged that since the early yearss of air current power in the UK, be aftering permission has been cited as a barrier to development. In fact, several research undertakings ( Walsink 2005 ; Devine-Wright 2007 and 2009 ; Jones and Eiser 2010 ) into public perceptual experiences have been taken as a consequence of society Ã¢â¬Ës opposition to weave engineerings Ã¢â¬â and all of them seem to hold similar findings. In drumhead, public attitudes converge between a Ã¢â¬Ënot in my back yard experiencing Ã¢â¬Ë ( NIMBY ) to concern about noise and ocular impact in the landscape ( Ibid ) . Furthermore, A Kolonas ( 2007 ) analysed 35 surveies on public perceptual experiences of air current power in the EU and, harmonizing to his findings, Ã¢â¬Å" there is the deficiency of a holistic and thorough attack, based on a common theoretical model Ã¢â¬ . He argues that such public attitudes are a consequence of Ã¢â¬Ëalready decided Ã¢â¬Ë undertakings being presented to the host community without deliberative planning schemes, which, in his sentiment, opens the door to resistance. Yet, inA Wolsink Ã¢â¬Ës ( 2007, p.1192 ) words: Ã¢â¬Å" the fact that a minority does non back up air current power is non surprising because there is barely anything in life that is universally supported. Ã¢â¬ The 2nd illustration, Brazil, was identified by Cowie ( 1998, p.156 ) , as the state that has benefitted most from biomass transition since its authorities launched the National Alcohol Programme ( ProAlcohol ) in 1975. TheA ProAlcool was created to promote ethanol production from the agitation of sugar cane as a response to surging oil monetary values and a crisis in the international sugar market ( Rothkopf, 2007 ) . During the first twelvemonth of the programme, Brazil produced 600,000A M3 of ethyl alcohol, of which a tierce was dehydrated for gasolene blending, and the balance used in the chemical and pharmaceutical industries ( Cowie, 1998, p.156 ) . The 20 % petrol blend known as gasohol shortly played an of import portion in the Brazilian economic system, so that by 1985 10.5 billion liters were being produced for motor fuel with a farther 2 billion liters for other intents. All together this created 500,000 new occupations in agribusiness every bit good as industry ( Ibid ) . While Brazilian ethyl alcohol produced from sugar cane provides energy that is renewable and less carbon-intensive than oil, American ethyl alcohol is chiefly produced from maize and its production relies on fossil energy. In add-on, the production of ethyl alcohol from maize has far-reaching effects on nutrient security. Harmonizing to theA UNCTAD ( 2010, p.10 ) , it is estimated that a particular public-service corporation vehicle requires 660 lbs of maize or nutrient to make full is its armored combat vehicle, plenty to feed two people in a underdeveloped state for the whole twelvemonth. Thus, subsidies forA biofuel production in developed states have encouraged husbandmans to switch from turning wheat and other grains to bring forth maize, lending to a deficit of nutrient and monetary value deformations on universe nutrient markets ( Pimentel 2009 cited by UNCTAD 2010, p.10 ) . The cardinal point to observe is that despite the sugar and ethyl alcohol produced from the sugar cane, theA bagasse ( byproduct of sugar cane oppressing ) can besides be used as a fuel for cogeneration systems. Harmonizing to the IAEA ( 2006, p.70 ) about all bing sugar cane Millss in Brazil are energy-self-sufficient ( thermic, mechanical and electric ) ; what makes BrazilianA biofuel an of import engineering is the fact that it mitigates climate alteration by cut downing nursery gas emanations non merely from the ethyl alcohol and gasohol use, but besides as an illustration of sustainable production. As Cowie ( 1998, p.156 ) highlighted, the Brazilian experience revealed that the benefits of national or regional biomass transition programmes could include: the aforementioned nursery benefits ; foreign exchange nest eggs on oil imports ; security of energy supply ; increased demand and variegation of agricultural merchandises ; environmental and wellness benefits as ethanol production reduces the CO2 emanations on conveyance sector ; spin-off benefits to equipment makers and providers in forestry, agribusiness and chemical industries ; increased research in biotechnology, microbiology, scientific agriculture, forestry, genetic sciences, technology, metallurgy and chemical science. Conversely, even though the debut of sugar cane into Brazil by the Portuguese was an early deforestation factor, this is no longer the instance. Although outputs have increased over clip, making 70 t/ha by 2001, sugar cane plantations still represent less than 2 % of the agricultural country in the state ( IAEA 2006, p. 114 ) , which besides has a big extension of land available for enlargement of deep-rooted woods and cultivation of energy harvests, with a limited impact on nutrient production ( Ibid, p.5 ) . However, there are several deductions of sugar cane and ethyl alcohol production.A Guarnieri andA Jannuzzi ( 1992 ) identified the followers: a ) increased eroding during and after the crop season ; B ) reduced H2O quality and handiness due to increased overflow ; c ) increased chemical pollution due to fertiliser and pesticide usage ; vitamin D ) debasement of dirt quality/productivity ; e ) reduced biodiversity ; degree Fahrenheit ) air emanations, A stillage and wash-up Waterss ensuing from industrialised intoxicant production ; g ) usage of land for big scale monocultures ; and H ) menaces of blackouts due to plantation-burning patterns impacting electricity transmittal lines. However, emanations straight related to sugarcane production have fallen drastically with the usage of itsA bagasse as a fuel and the research and development on efficient engineerings and pesticides ( IAEA 2006, p.115 ) . Finally, from the societal position, the sugar cane sector is the beginning ofA support for over 45 million husbandmans and their dependants, consisting 7.5 % of the rural population ( IEA 2010, p.143 ) . Compared to oil production, the job-creation per unit of energy is three times higher for hydropower and 150 times higher for ethanol production ( IAEA 2010, p.145 ) . However, the figure of harvest workers was reduced in the past decennary and is likely to cut down even further due to the addition in mechanization[ 1 ]. As a effect, contract workers who used to cut cane manually in the Fieldss have now received preparation and some of them are runing reaping machines. Although this may non be plenty to absorb all old workers, it is expected that over the long term this alteration will convey better working conditions and higher wage ( IEA 2010, p.107 ) . This essay has attempted to discourse the societal, economic and political deductions of a social response to climate alteration based around alternate energy engineerings, utilizing two different instances as illustrations: the air current energy used in the UnitedA Kingdom and sugar cane used in ethyl alcohol and cogeneration production in Brazil. From the first illustration, it emerged that although the air current energy has an of import function to play on the energy mix in the UK, there is still important opposition in society to windmill building across the state. Furthermore, harmonizing to the literature reappraisal, it seems that this place is related to the absence of a planning policy where the populace could hold a more participatory function in taking the sites where air current turbines should be built. With respect to the economic and societal deductions, wind energy represents a valuable engineering for the UK, once it is able to supply fiscal benefits either on the figure of occupations created, or other environing economic activity that may besides be developed. Looking to the Brazilian scenario, on the other manus, it was observed that despite of environmental and societal impacts from the beginning of theA sugar cane factory activities, the state has successfully improvedA substantialA ordinance and engineerings for both ethyl alcohol and sugar production, ensuing in the cogeneration of energy from sugarcaneA bagasse and the recent success of flex-fuel vehicles. Sustainable energy has besides proved an chance for occupation creative activity in the energy sector, and the betterment inA efficiency has meant an addition in productiveness while cut downing energy usage and nursery gas emanations. Surely, both alternate energy engineerings developed in these two states still have several impacts which still have to be managed, such as market stableness, grid entree, accomplishments deficits and authorities policies. However, from parametric quantities of what could be studied in this essay, the advantages of alternate energy engineering far outweigh the disadvantages of the fossil-fuel energy response. As this essay concentrated merely on air current and sugar cane biomass, it would be interesting to set about farther research into the societal, economic and political deductions of other alternate energies or possibly even the deductions of air current and biomass in other states. Wordcount: 2.479
Tuesday, July 30, 2019
OntarioÃ¢â¬ s nuclear power planets are damaging our environment and economic structure; nuclear power should be shut down and replaced with safer methods of power making. OntarioÃ¢â¬ s nuclear power is not the safe and clean way to produce power, OntarioÃ¢â¬ s nuclear plants are becoming outdated, nuclear waste is building up, and contamination is becoming more of a threat. Ontario thought that nuclear was clean, safe, and cheap way to produce power. During the 1950s, Ontario Hydro was looking for new sources of electricity to meet the growing demand. In 1954, a partnership was formed between Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), Ontario Hydro and Canadian General Electric to build CanadaÃ¢â¬ s first nuclear power plant called NPD for Nuclear Power Demonstration. In 1962, NPD began supplying the province of Ontario with its first nuclear generated electricity. Ontario had found itÃ¢â¬ s new source of electricity, and they were not fully aware consequences that would happen after many years of use. Power projects (later AECL CANDU), based in Toronto. Ontario and Montreal, Quebec became responsible for implementing AECLÃ¢â¬ s nuclear power program and marketing CANDU reactors. Nuclear power was cheap, if you did not have to worry about the waste. This was the answer to OntarioÃ¢â¬ s power problems, so they invested in the newest source of power at the time. Most people believed that nuclear power was a good change in OntarioÃ¢â¬ s power structure, and there would be no real problems in the future. Ontario needed a new source of power in the 1950s; they found it in nuclear power and it solved the problem. In the 1950s the average person did not have a lot of knowledge about nuclear energy, and nuclear studies were being held. All people really knew was the positive side of things, the government and research bodyÃ¢â¬ s made videos that would try to describe nuclear energy to the public. The videos would talk about how great nuclear power and how abundant nuclear energy was. Making it sound like the answer to all our electric needs. The government and research body kind of jumped around the subject of nuclear waste, and the effects it could have on a human or the environment. The real truths about nuclear energy was not as widely known, and the majority of the people thought that nuclear energy was a positive step in the right direction. Ontario has a huge problem with the build up of nuclear waste, and this waste could have a huge impact on our environment if something were to go wrong. Radioactive mops, rags, clothing, tools, and contaminated equipment such as filters and pressure tubes, are temporality stored in shallow underground containers at the Bruce Nuclear Complex and elsewhere. At Bruce, a radwaste incinerator reduces the volume of combustible radioactive waste materials. In 1975, St. Mary's School in Port Hope was evacuated because of high radiation levels in the cafeteria. It was soon learned that large volumes of radioactive wastes from uranium refining operations had been used as construction material in the school and all over town. Hundreds of homes were contaminated. There are 200 million tons of sand-like uranium tailings in Canada, mostly in Ontario and Saskatchewan. These radioactive wastes will remain hazardous for hundreds of thousands of years. They contain some of the most powerful carcinogens known: radium, radon gas, polonium, thorium and others. Radio-active tailings also result from phosphate ores and other ores rich in uranium. In 1978, an Ontario Royal Commission recommended that a panel of world class ecologists study the long-term problem of radioactive tailings and that the future of nuclear power be assessed in view of their findings. The government has ignored these recommendations. Nuclear waste is biodegradable, but it takes it takes hundreds of thousands of years to do so, which could leave unimaginable results in the future. Lately OntarioÃ¢â¬ s nuclear power plants have been going threw horrible management, out dated equipment, and nuclear waste build up; resulting in economic breakdown. OntarioÃ¢â¬ s nuclear plants have not had their equipment greatly updated, which is a big problem that could be costly to fix. When calculated in real 1998 dollars, total federal subsidies to Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) for the last 46 years amount to $15. 8 billion. It should be noted that $15. 8 billion is a real cash subsidy to AECL, and does not include any opportunity cost? What the subsidies would have been worth if the government had invested in more cost competitive ventures. At a rate of 15%, the opportunity cost of government subsidies to AECL is $202 billion. There is also federal financial support for other nuclear activities in progress or impending, including: the Whiteshell Laboratories privatization ($23. 1 million); the MAPLE reactors at Chalk River Laboratories ($120 million); the Canadian Neutron Facility ($400 million); radioactive waste management and decommissioning ($665 million); and reactor exports ($2. 5 billion considered). In Ontario the bad management and the old equipment has lead to major change in the way the plats work. Also this will cost billions of dollars to do. In the long run OntarioÃ¢â¬ s nuclear do not make the money needed to stay open, with the costs of fixing them and reforming them it would just cost to much, so there is no point in doing so. Ontario has purposed to close down all of there nuclear plants, but they decided that is would be better to keep most of them open. There are much more safer, cleaner, and cheaper ways of producing power. We could invest solar, wind or tide power sources, all of which are safe. Leaving these nuclear plants open is like trying to heal your cut with a knife. Ontario and its people donÃ¢â¬ t realize that with the build up of nuclear waste, we could be looking into major crises. Many of Ontario HydroÃ¢â¬ s problems are monetary in origin. The corporation has had difficulty maintaining its nuclear facilities in accordance with the Atomic Energy Control BoardÃ¢â¬ s safety requirements. HydroÃ¢â¬ s restructuring efforts reflect past negligence in preventive, minor, and responsive maintenance. It is now faced with a situation wherein the demand for energy must be met through the means of an increasingly limited resource . . . money. In response to this problem, the energy formerly supplied through nuclear power is being replaced primarily with coal-driven electrical generation. Hydro has implemented a short-term, quick fix solution based on the same practices and assumptions, which originally lead to the failure of OntarioÃ¢â¬ s nuclear energy program. As of now Ontario stands by its nuclear power and they do not have any current plans to shut down or totally reform these plants. OntarioÃ¢â¬ s nuclear power plants are a Danger to our environment, the economy, and a danger to the people, us; we should shut down all of these plants and replace them with safer methods.
Monday, July 29, 2019
Analysis of the Nation of Brazil and Its Classification as A Developed Nation or Not In this project I have collected, analysed and evaluated evidence to help me to decide whether Brazil is a developed country or a developing country. Introduction to Brazil Brazil is the largest and most influential country in South America with a population of about 176 million, which is greater than the combined total for the whole of the rest of the continent. Brazil takes up almost half of South America. The 6,448km long Amazon River runs through the North of Brazil and is the second largest in the world, and the Amazon Basin is the largest River Basin the world. The River and over a thousand tributaries drain an area of 6,150,000km and carry one fifth of the worlds fresh water out to sea. In the North East, Brazil has arid deserts with rolling grasslands in the South. The Amazonian Rainforest covers more than one third of Brazil and its exploitation has become a major environmental worry. Brazil borders the Atlantic Ocean down the eastern side with the following countries bordering the North and West: French Guiana; Suriname; Guyana; Venezuela; Columbia; Peru; Bolivia; Paraguay; Argentina; and Uruguay. Brazil lies between 5 North and 30 South of the Equator. So, it is possible to stand with one leg in the Northern Hemisphere and the other in the Southern Hemisphere! The Equator, therefore, runs through the extreme North of Brazil with Macap and the Mouths of the Amazon on its line. Brazils correct title is The Federal Republic of Brazil and its 26 states are administered from its capital, Bras, which was purpose built and now has a population of between 1 and 1.9 million people. However, S Paulo has 17 million inhabitants. (See population map). The highest point in Brazil is Pico da Neblina which is 3014m (9,888 ft) above sea level. Brazils main language is Portuguese and its main religion is Catholic Christianity. Brazilian society is a vibrant, diverse mix of cultures. Brazils share of the Amazon basin, occupying half of the country, has a model equatorial climate. The 150-200cm (59-79 inches) of rain are spread throughout the year, although some periods are rather wetter than others according to the region. (See rainfall map) Temperatures are high, with almost no seasonal variation, but scarcely ever rise above 38 (100). The Brazilian plateau, which occupies most of the rest of the country, has far greater temperature ranges. Rain falls mainly between October and April. However, the Northeast, the least productive region of Brazil, is very dry and in past years has been suffering from severe drought, which compounded its problems. (See map on rainfall) The southern states have hot summers and cool winters, when frost may occur. The currency used on Brazil is the Real. 1 real = 100 centavos. The average wage per person per year is about ,570. The following evidence I have gathered describes how Brazil may have become a developed country. Economy Brazil has one of the worlds major economies and is now the ninth wealthiest country in the world. Economic reforms in the 1990s have bought some stability to the countrys finances. Reforms have included privatisation and the opening up of its markets. During the 1960s and 1970s, GDP expanded by an average of 11% a year. At this time the country enjoyed massive industrial growth, but then the Boom and Bust pattern hit and Brazil went bust! It became the worlds greatest debtor. The economy underwent major diversification and industrialisation, and today Brazil is a significant producer of cars and computers. In fact, Brazils car industry is acclaimed as being the success of the decade. Economic reform, initiated in 1990, enabled Brazil to reschedule its debts, but a steep recession followed in 1990-1992. The launching of the new currency, the re, in 1994 was the fifth attempt at monetary stabilisation since 1986. It contributed to the dramatic reduction of inflation from around 50% a month in 1994 to around 80% a year in 1995 and less than 20% a year in 1996. Economic growth of 5.7% in 1994 was the highest since 1986. This boosted regional confidence and facilitated the launch of MERCOSUR, the common market with neighbouring Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay. In 1995, a fractious Congress blocked constitutional reforms of the tax and social security system, but finally agreed to end state monopolies in such sectors as telecommunications and oil, thereby reviving the governments privatisation programme. Rio de Janeiro is a major city on the East Coast, and although not the biggest, was once the capital city of Brazil. It was the area where the earlier Portuguese settlers (who have always claimed that they discovered it) landed and immediately began cultivating the rich soil. At this stage, it was all tropical forest in the area, but over many centuries it has been cleared and it is now Brazils political and economic heartland. Many people enjoy the white sandy beaches of Copacabana, which is overlooked by Sugarloaf Mountain. Many centuries of colonisation, conflict and slavery, and massive immigration from Europe have left Brazil a Country full of many different races and cultures. Lying mid-way between Salvador in the North and Porto Alegre in the South, and occupying only 7.7 per cent of Brazils total area, Rio De Janeiro supports over 30 per cent of its population. The annual carnival in Rio takes place over fives days where parades, balls, street dancing and samba and bossa nova music fill the streets. Brazil is also revered for its football prowess, having won the world cup 5 times. Vast sugar cane plantations mean that alcohol production is huge, and when oil became scarce and expensive in the early 1970s it caused many to use industrial alcohol as a fuel for the vehicles they then began building. Politics Brazil is a democratic federal republic with 26 regional parliaments and a national congress. Brazil became independent of Portugal in 1822 giving the country the opportunity to develop to its best potential, and current borders were established. Women in Brazil have had the vote since 1934 and in 1993, Brazilians voted to retain directly elected presidents. In 1997 the constitution was changed to allow a president to run for re-election. Reformists want provisions to curb tax evasion, and were successful in 1995 in ending state monopolies and allowing foreign investment in telecommunications, oil, mining and shipping. Many also want to see changes in the electoral system in order to curb the increasing involvement of small parties in government. In October 2002, Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva, popularly known as Lula, won the elections and became president. A former shoeshine boy he will head Brazils first left-wing government for more than 40 years. At his inauguration in January 2003, Lula promised to make major political and economical reforms and pledged to eradicate hunger. He also pledged to tackle corruption and Brazils economic woes, improve education and create 10 million jobs. He plans to rid Brazil of its reputation for the biggest gap between rich and poor in the world. He did warn that this might take him longer than his initial 4-year term. Plans to develop nuclear weapons have now been abandoned by the military. Industry Local industry is well developed, making Brazil dominant in the region. Major industries include, Agriculture, Mining, Iron and Steel, Motor vehicles, Oil and Mineral refining, Chemicals, Wood pulp and paper, Machinery, Food processing, Consumer goods, Textiles, Rubber processing and Fertilisers. Brazil is one of the worlds most important steel producers, and it has large deposits of gold, silver and iron. Agriculture and Products Brazil has a huge, successful agricultural base and produces the worlds largest quantities of coffee and Soya beans. It also has immense natural resources. It also produces Cereals, Cassava, Sugar, Oranges, Cocoa, Rice, Cotton, Tobacco, Bananas, Rubber, Timber, Iron ore, Bauxite, Manganese, Crude oil and Natural Gas, Coal, Chromium, Nickel, Tin, Zinc, Gold, Silver, Diamonds, Phosphates, Salt, Quartz crystal, Beryllium, Graphite, Titanium, Tungsten and Asbestos. Exports Total products exported are valued at $58.2 billion. Brazil has previously built its wealth on the exports of coffee, but more recently on sugar exportation and that of its other many natural resources. Brazil is now one of the largest sugar and orange juice exporters. Other products exported are Sugar, Machinery, Animal feed stuffs, Coffee, Cocoa, Iron ore, Motor vehicles, Soya beans and oil, Oranges, Iron and Steel, Chemicals and non-ferrous metals. Resources Under the military, Brazil commissioned several power stations from former West Germany. Energy from these has been more expensive than expected, but the construction of the Angra-2 nuclear station was approved in 1996. Hydropower has been more successful, accounting for 90% of electricity generation. An agreement to build a 2,200km (1,370 miles) pipeline from the Bolivian gas fields to Brazils industrial south was signed in 1996 and put out to private tender. Ethanol is being made from sugar in an attempt to reduce petrol imports. Within the agricultural sector, Brazil is the worlds largest producer of coffee and the third largest producer of maize (corn). The total amount of electricity generated is 251bn kW/h. of this 93% is generated by hydroelectric power and 6% is thermal. The total electricity capacity is 56.21 million kW. In the South, the forces of the Paran and Paraguay Rivers have been harnessed to form the worlds largest hydroelectric project, the Itaip Dam. Regional divide Brazil can be divided into 5 regions (see regional map) North, Northeast, Centre West, Southeast and South. The North has several resource sites, from which the following materials are mined: Gold Bauxite Lead Copper Tin Iron Nickel Diamonds Common Salt (Sodium Chloride) Oil But the north does not have any industries. This is because of the enormous Amazon Rainforest and the inability to build upon it. In the Centre West, there is a similar amount of resources, which also includes zinc, limestone and quartz. As in the North, the Centre West does not have any main industries. Down in the South there are not as many resources as in the North and Centre West, but there are many industries. Moving back up into the South East there are many resources such as Iron, Nickel, Oil, Gold, Quartz etc. and also quite a few industries which include Textiles/Clothing, Iron and Steel sites and a shipbuilding site. Finally, in the Northeast of Brazil there are many resource sites and industrial sites. These include Bauxite, limestone, sea salt and oil refineries, mechanical engineering and textiles and clothing. Communications A vast road network is being built to link the main centres of Brazil, and five river systems are being harnessed for a total of 8,000km (5,000 miles) of waterways. The antiquated railways are increasingly unreliable. S Paulos metro is being extended to cope with the citys rapidly expanding population. Media Brazil is the largest exporter of TV programmes. South Americas biggest media market is home to thousands of radio stations and hundreds of T.V channels. The constitution guarantees a free press and vigorous media debate about controversial political and social matters is common. Media ownership is highly concentrated. Globo and Abril dominate the market and have interests in T.V and radio networks newspapers and pay T.V operations. Education Education follows the French system with a bachillerato (baccalaur) at the end of secondary schooling Society Brazil has targeted eco-tourism as a major growth area. The government is encouraging foreign investment in tourist facilities in Amazonia. Health There is a free health service available. This chapter includes evidence to suggest that Brazil may not yet be a developed country, but may still be developing. Politics The reduction of the fiscal deficit is a key objective. The government aims to dramatically reduce overstaffing at all levels of government, reduce social security payments and address the problem of the high real level of interest rates. The 1988 constitution, detailing promises for a better future, has proved to be unworkable in practice. The state cannot afford its social security, health and pension commitments. The proliferation of local governments, designed to check federal power, has led to a duplication of functions and is very expensive. Former President Collor de Mellos 1992 impeachment for fraud underlines the depth of the problem of corruption in Brazil. Many are now demanding an end to parliamentary immunity: under the current system, elected officials cannot be prosecuted unless they have been suspended from office by a two-thirds vote. The military, in power between 1964 and 1985, was responsible for human rights abuses, particularly against Amazon Indians. Its economic mismanagement left Brazil with a legacy of huge debts and inefficient state industries. Regional Wealth The government is facing increasing pressure to redress what some say is one of the worlds most unfair distributions of wealth. Much of the countrys arable land is controlled by a handful of wealthy families, a situation which the Movement of Landless Rural Workers (MST) seeks to redress by demanding land redistribution. It uses direct protest action and land occupation in its quest. Society Social conditions are harsh in the big cities of Rio de Janeiro and S Paulo, where a third of the population lives in favelas or slums. In the 1970s a major drive was initiated to move settlers to the Amazon region. This caused considerable damage to vast areas of the rainforest. The high rate of destruction of the Amazon by loggers and cattle ranchers remains controversial today. However, these government sponsored migration programmes have now been halted. Many people work in fields for little pay, while a few rich landowners benefit from the huge profits. The ownership of consumer goods is not high. Out of 1,000 people: 278 own a T.V, 83 own a VCR, 13 own a PC. A lack of money, health and education forces over 500,000 girls into prostitution. Many street children are murdered by vigilante groups, who believe they are cleaning the streets. 90% of these murders go unpunished. Amerindians suffer prejudice from most other peoples in Brazil. Since 1900, 87 Amerindian groups have become extinct as a result of disease, starvation or the forceful taking of their land by miners, settlers and loggers. The Amerindian population today is estimated at just 220,000. Migrants from the poor Northeast suffer considerable discrimination in Brazils larger cities. Health Brazils Aids programme has become a model for other developing countries, having succeeded in stabilising the rate of HIV infection and cutting the number of Aids-related deaths. However, it is a controversial programme since it involves bypassing the big drugs firms to produce generic copycat Aids medicines. There may be as many as 2,000 street children who are HIV positive. The major causes of death are Heart diseases, Cancers, Accidents and Violence. There are 681 patients per doctor. Only 2.8% of the GNP (Gross National Produce) is spent of health. The public health system is limited. Less than 20% of hospitals are state-run and private care is very expensive. The World Bank has criticised the under-financing of preventive health care. On average, only 15% of the health budget is allocated to child health, immunisation and other preventive programmes. Reported malaria cases tripled between 1980 and 1990; 90% are in Amazonia, mainly in settler towns. Leprosy and parasitic skin infections are also becoming more common, again often affecting settlers. Unfortunately, the building of the Itaip Dam caused the lake it created to drown a set of waterfalls and this created a breeding ground for malaria-carrying mosquitoes. The forest contains many plants that provide the basis for many valuable products, the most important ones being those for medicines. The bark of chinchona supplies the quinine to treat malaria, for example. Other plants supply substances used in the fight against cancer. Brazil nuts too are of-course famous all over the world. The constant stripping and attacking of these natural resources is doing much harm. Economy Brazil has a history of boom and bust, with its attempts at development hampered in the past by high inflation and one of the biggest foreign debts. It has had to be bailed out in times of crisis. The total value of Brazils debt is a staggering $250bn! () Chaotic finances of the states threatens national economic stability. Foreign investment is deterred by corruption, the fragility of economic reforms and preferences given to national companies in the sale of state companies. Congressional opposition delays urgent tax and social security reforms and privatisations. Savings and investment rates are about half those of leading East Asian competitors. Despite enormous natural and economic resources, Brazil still has 32 million of its people living below the poverty line, and has not begun to tackle the problem of homelessness and street children in Rio, S Paulo and other large cities. An estimated one to five million families remain landless, while nearly 80% of farmland is owned by 10% of farmers. Brazils large wealth disparities have been growing during the last decade. Relatively low levels of unemployment conceal large-scale underemployment, and the UN classifies over 50% of the population as suffering poverty. The large numbers of poor rural migrants who move to the cities live in the favelas, or shantytowns. Favelas are now also appearing in the countryside. The wealthy like to drive European cars, holiday in Paris or ski in Switzerland, where most of them keep their money to avoid scrutiny and interference in their accounts by the government. Brazil experienced an energy crisis in 2001. It is a country very dependent on water to fire its hydro-electric power stations, so when they had droughts so bad that the reservoirs were drained dry, they had a major catastrophe on their hands. At that time, hydroelectric plants and reservoirs produced over 90% of the countrys electricity supply, and the dry weather and insecure infrastructure issues caused major shortages. In 2002, they introduced some energy rationing, even declaring public holidays in an attempt to keep the demand for power by the large industries down. This in turn has led to a more immediate need for an alternative fuel source, and to not keep all ones eggs in one basket so to speak. They are currently importing oil from Venezuela and Argentina. Many large foreign firms have placed serious bids for the rights to drill and excavate for oil in the rich off-shire reserves 6,560 feet below the waters surface off Brazils Atlantic Coast. BP Amoco, for example, won a bi d for an area located 186 miles from the mouth of the Amazon River. A second, third and fourth round of bids was even more successful, with large investments being made in Brazils oil reserves. Aid Brazils main aid donors are the USA and the EU. The World Bank provided $2 billion in 1996 for environmental, basic sanitation, road building and anti-poverty projects. As well as official aid, much comes from NGOs, (non-Governmental Organisations) mainly for environmental and housing projects. Education Not all children in Brazil are registered. Of those that are; 90% receive Primary education, 19% receive Secondary education and only 12% receive Tertiary education. The adult literacy rate is 84.9% of all registered people compared with 99% in the UK. State schools enjoyed a good reputation until the 1950s, but have declined since then. Most middle-class parents now send their children to private schools. The wealthy send theirs to Switzerland or France. Millions of the poor receive little education especially those living in the Northeast and Amazonia, and the urban poor. Brazils three million street children have no schooling at all. Public degree courses work on credits, as in the USA. Of Brazils 95 universities, 55 are administered by the state. Sao Paulo University is the most prestigious. Communications In Brazil, only 49 out of 1,000 people own a car and only 75 out of 1,000 people own telephones. Media Although there is now no official censorship, TV and radio operating licences are awarded as political favours, and state advertising is so extensive that it cannot fail to influence editorial policy. Media ownership is also highly concentrated, 3 main companies own 293 daily newspapers. There are 19 state owned TV stations and 218 independent stations. There 2000 independent radio stations, but only 1 state owned. Environment Federal agencies charged with protecting the Amazon are insufficiently funded, understaffed and accused of corruption. The Amazon rainforest contains an estimated 90% of the entire worlds plants and animals and is the most complex ecosystem known. However, the demands of agriculture are leading to its destruction at a rate of 4 square km (1.5 square miles) per hour, or 35,000 square km (13,510 square miles) per year. As a result of such massive clearances, usually for conversion to cattle pasture, vital genetic diversity is being lost. Brazil faces other environmental problems. Opencast bauxite mining is polluting rivers and threatening the livelihoods of indigenous Amerindians. In the cities, widespread industrial pollution and untreated sewage are major problems. Crime The total population in Prison is 87,053. There is no death penalty. There are 2 murders and 3 rapes per 100,000 people. Urban life in Brazil can be violent. The incidence of armed robbery and drugs-related crime is rising. Human rights abuses by the police are frequently reported. Death squads, uncontrolled by the government, target street children in particular, especially in Rio, S Paulo and Recife. Since 1985, the rate of street child murders has been rising. However, international condemnation of the crimes has led to action in some areas. In the countryside, violent land disputes are common. Landless workers are repeatedly displaced and indigenous peoples driven from land to which the government has, in theory, guaranteed their rights. Tourism Brazils border with Argentina and Paraguay, boasts a natural wonder of the world, the massive Iguazu Falls. This is a remarkable sight much bigger than the Victoria Falls in Africa or North Americas Niagara Falls. Yet, the rest of the world barely knows of its existence. If marketed correctly, this could be a major tourist attraction. Brazil needs to extend this tourist resource and do more with it. Its 2,000 km (1,240 miles) of Atlantic beaches, the folklore and music of the north-east coast, and the annual Mardi Gras carnival in Rio de Janeiro are Brazils major attractions. However, the increasingly affluent and international audience now controls the carnival. The largely Afro-Brazilian residents of Rios favelas, or shanty towns, can often no longer afford to take part in the parades that originate in their culture. However, Brazilians show little interest in Eco-tourism, preferring to visit Amazonia for the duty-free shopping zone in Manaus. Brazil is still a relatively cheap destination for European and American tourists. Despite this, visitor numbers are declining, falling from 0.5% to 0.1% of the world market since 1970. Many visitors have been put off by the negative publicity generated by the conditions in the shantytowns and by Brazils past human rights record. Housing shortages in Brazil mean that about 25 million people live in sprawling shantytowns, called favelas that surround the cities. Most of the homes are built by the families themselves, sometimes from waste materials but more often from wood, bricks and cement bought from builders merchants. For the population who live in the favelas, 70% have no running water, 60% have no toilets or drains and 52% have no waste collection. Conclusion On analysing the evidence found, I have drawn the following conclusions. I think that Brazil is still a developing country despite its enormous agricultural/resource exports and its current attempts to repay its immense $250bn debt. There is such a massive divide between the rich and the poor, with the poor being in the majority that no developed country would have allowed this to remain for such a long time. A developed country would not have accrued such a high debt and would have used its natural resources to its advantage. There needs to be an equal distribution of the countrys wealth. I feel that in order to address some of Brazils problems, there needs to be a major re-allocation of land so that the very poor have a fighting chance of earning a decent living from working the land and selling the produce. There needs to be a massive campaign to re-educate the whole population of Brazil, which should address the need world-wide to stop destroying the rainforest, and all its natural plants. I think Brazil is no where near being a completely developed country. I believe that its only just started developing.
Sunday, July 28, 2019
Intervention and health impact analysis - Coursework Example Now with the 5-tier pyramid containing different forms of interventions to maintain life expectancy in countries that have developed, it will ensure the means of preventing diseases, reduction of spread level and improvement in economic growth to emerge. In addition, there is improved living standards, and with improved ways of treatments (Frieden, 2010). With the pyramid, it helps in addressing the determinants of socioeconomic at the bottom and public health interventions e.g. clean water with safe infrastructure, protective interventions like immunizations with long lasting importance with clinical care and lastly education counseling located at the top of the pyramid. The socioeconomic factors situated at the bottom of the 5-tier pyramid mostly explains on economic issues or health indicators like poverty eradication, advanced education for the benefit of the society (Frieden, 2010). With increase in wealth, roads are constructed increasing the number of vehicles and a result leads to pollutions and deaths from the accidents but all the problems can be prevented by the improved health like availability of clean water and sanitation making the bicycle and scooter rentals a better option. Additionally, with changes in the context, it motivates health decisions regardless of education, provision of service, income, and many other factors. On the contrary, people who use cabs and other fuelled countries with lack of these are encouraged by brushing their teeth. Activities that lead to the elimination and the exposure of asbestos, salt iodination, clean water, air and food, improved road construction that helps in the creation of advanced healthier practices (Lowe, 2002). Besides the above case, the bicycle and scooter rentals is an imperative intervention since the inventions are in place to prevent cardiovascular diseases yet it is erratic with adherence that may not be predicted with unreliable effectiveness. The
Summary of The Pentateuch (From SOURCES GIVEN by me) - Essay Example These instructions are less explicit than the law sections of the books, and as such are open to interpretation. Despite the fact that these first five books of the Bible are known as the "five books of Moses", he is not considered the sole author. This label is more of a Jewish tradition; however the sections which are considered by Biblical scholars to be the oldest are also thought to have been authored by Moses. These sections include Exodus 21-23, the "Book of the Covenant" (Exodus 24-28), Numbers 33, Deuteronomy 5-21, and the Ten Commandments. Overall, it may be more accurate to say that the creation of the Pentateuch was inspired by Moses rather than it actually having been written by him. The Pentateuch is thought to be a compilation of documents created at different times in the history of the Israelites. The Pentateuch as it is known today was not compiled earlier than the fifth century B.C.E. There are a number of opinions concerning the date of origin of Pentateuch documents; the most widely accepted of these was formulated by Julius Wellhausen in the nineteenth century. According to this theory, a document known as "J" (Jahwist) is the oldest known written source, written in the ninth century B.C.E. The "E" document (Elohist) was written in the eighth century, and these two sources were edited into one in the seventh century. Deuteronomy dates from 621 B.C.E. and was added in the sixth century. Around 400 B.C.E., the last document, known as the Priestly Work, was added. Alternative theories include the possibility that the J document is actually the youngest of the four rather than the oldest. Recent work has developed theories on the intent of the authors of these works. Overall, it is thought that the main intent was to use their presentations of Israel's traditional history to convey important messages. For example, the Jahwist document addresses the "age of Solomon" and urges Israelites to live in accordance with the commands of Abraham of Genesis. The Elohist document urges Israelites to shun foreign cults, the book of Deuteronomy emphasizes the importance of the unity of Israel, and the Priestly Work emphasizes the authenticity of Israel's religious and cultural traditions. Another analytical technique is a "form-critical" approach which examines the literary forms (for example moral story, saga, or tale) of the books to determine their role in every day life. This approach reconstructs the historical background in which the documents were written. An analysis by Martin Noth detected five major themes of the Pentateuch: God's promise to the Israelites, their exodus from Egypt, their time spent in the wilderness, the giving of God's law, and His guidance in the Israelites new land. A third technique which examines oral composition and transmission of the Pentateuch writings questions the idea of the Pentateuch as a primarily written document. The book of Genesis can be seen as an oral composition which reflects several different influences (due to differences in representation and small discrepancies in detail). Themes The last four books of the Pentateuch, which follow Moses from birth to death, are part of a strong narrative theme. However, to regard the Pentateuch as
Saturday, July 27, 2019
Phase 2 Discussion Board - Assignment Example Therefore, the demand is inelastic, meaning that a change in price would not significantly affect the quantity demanded. When elasticity of demand is referred to as unitary, this means it equals one and as such, any change in price will have an equal impact on quantity demanded. Price elasticity of demand (PED) refers to change in quantity demanded due to percentage change in price. The value of price elasticity is similar at all points along the demand horizontal curve. The same case applies to price inelastic demand (PID) which is represented by a vertical line. According to Gupta (2008), PED is defined as a measure of responsiveness of quantity demanded to changes in price. Demand is said to be elastic when PED is greater than one. Further, this indicates that consumers are very sensitive to changes in price. One percentage change in price will lead to a drop in quantity demanded by more than one percentage. Similarly, when PED is less than one, it is interpreted that consumers are insensitive to price changes and any increase in price will cause a decline in quantity demanded by less than one percentage. Ideally, the effect of price increase has a significant effect on Autoedge total revenue. As such, PED becomes paramount for the company as it seeks to maximize revenues. In this regard, if Autoedge finds its PED to be relatively inelastic, it may decide to raise prices since the auto parts would be sold at high prices without adversely affecting sales. Similarly, if Autoedge finds its PED to be inelastic, it may choose to lower prices in order to enable the business increase the number of units sold and hence revenue without necessarily losing customers. It is worth noting that when demand is perfectly elastic as represented by a horizontal curve, any increase in price leads to zero units demanded. On the other hand, if the demand is found to be perfectly
Friday, July 26, 2019
What is High Stakes Writing Low Stakes Writing - Article Example On the other hand, low-stakes writing is writing activities which are informal in nature and in grading. The objectives of teachers for giving low stakes writing assignments are to encourage active involvement of the students in the course through short essays written in the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ own words. Through this method, teachers would immediately determine the scope of the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ understanding of the modules and enable the teachers to immediately address any concern. Examples of low stakes writing assignments are abstract writing, summaries, headlines, paraphrasing exercises, definitions, editorials, letter writings, and reaction papers, among others. (The Centre for Teaching Excellence 11) Elbow averred that low stakes writing encourages students to explore other venues of the course materials to hone their skills. This type of writing provides opportunities for students to learn outside the classroom. Their research and data gathering skills are improved. They also learn to assimilate course materials with the external information gathered for the essay requirement. On the other hand, high stakes writing can be very stressful for students considering that a major portion of their overall mark depends on this assignment. At the same token, considerable stress is also placed in the hands of the professors who would grade these high stakes writing an assignment. Finally, these are not viable for very large classes considering the number of students to grade for the requirement. (1) Low stakes writing, on the contrary, create a more relaxed atmosphere for learning due to its informal nature and grading. Students are encouraged to voice their opinions and insights in their own words; thereby giving the teachers the opportunity to easily determine if theÃ students fully understand the concepts and theories imparted.Ã
Thursday, July 25, 2019
Annotated Bibliography - Assignment Example The author suggests that leaders in the public service undergo management transitions as they encounter new environments. The process of transition should have apt strategies to enhance quality work and improved performance. The author presents a practical way that will steer innovation and creativity in the nonprofit making bodies. The process of public service has the design to improve performance, reduce gaps, and effective participation. The government process focus on the entire society to overcome any form of discrimination to lead to a better solving agent. The entrepreneurial government promotes service delivery, performance on the agencies, meeting needs of the stakeholders, change in authority, and solving community problems. A transformation in the public service creates an increase in innovation. The primary health care in the Western world has wide range of professionals that include nurses, counselors, and doctors that embrace health. Primary health integrates leadership and management on the healthcare professionals to address different areas of health. Nurse practitioners in the first-line assessment of patients present the development of intermediate care. The skills of leadership and management of organizations have innate changes with clear implications for the education and training of all healthcare professionals. The author of the article discusses different theory in line with leadership and management that include personal construct theory, whole-systems theory, linearity complexity, and leadership theory. The author argues that innovation is the best approach for the healthcare professionals to solve problems. The author indicates different possible paths that some find difficult to adhere in the linear frame of mind. The author informs the reason for integratin g primary healthcare by providing advice on developing leadership countries. The author cites that intuition in organizations to lead and
Wednesday, July 24, 2019
Contrast Effect - Essay Example According to Six Sigma, quality requires entrepreneurs to look at their own business from the customer's perspective and not be based on their own perspectives. By understanding the transaction from the needs and processes of customers, the company is able to explore on what costumers see and feel. Consequently, marketers can identify areas where significant value or improvement be added. Kotler (2000, p. 36) underscored that customer expectations are relevant key determinants of their satisfaction, consumption experiences, and loyalty. It is wise that marketers need to either meet or exceed such expectations; otherwise, it could lead to customer defection or dissatisfaction. Feldman and Lynch (1988) argued that when customers express their expectations before their consumption experience, it would most likely bring them more convenient during the experience. The same points were emphasized by Morwitz and Fitzsimons (2004); Dholakia and Morwitz (2002); Kardes, Allen, and Pontes (1993 ); and Fitzsimons & Williams (2000) respectively. have less or no knowledge that there will be an upcoming service evaluation process versus those forewarned customers about a service encounter, which later be asked to evaluate the said service; tend to supply higher negative post-experience evaluations (Ofir a
Tuesday, July 23, 2019
Issues in Secondary Education - Essay Example This stage, which is preceded by the Concrete Operational stage, begins more or less at age 11, which is beginning of puberty and continues well into adulthood. (Abbeduto, 2006, 131)This stage is characterized by acquisition of the ability to think abstractly and draw conclusions from the information available. This stage is also important to our topic, because the students are entering puberty around this time, which leads them to many questions about themselves and their bodies; further leading to questions about just who they think they are. According to Erik Erikson, there are eight stages of human development. Along with the stages themselves, Erikson also states that a psychosocial crisis occurs during each of the stages; for this stage, the psychosocial crisis is titled Identity versus role confusion. As stated by Erikson, this stage is when the adolescent student becomes concerned with how they appear to others. Many adolescents ask themselves "Who am I? Where am I going in life?", and confusion occurs because of the cognitive and bodily changes happening to the learner. Peer groups also play a role in this stage, because they affect who a student thinks they are too. (Blair, 2006, 53) The confusion of trying to decide what peer group you fit into exacerbates the possible identity crisis. At last is Abraham Maslow, with his Hierarchy of requirements. At the same time, when above-mentioned theorists talked about various stages of development, Maslow's theory is a little bit different; his theory explains that regardless of the age of a person, everyone is willing to have their requirements fulfilled. (Cooper, P. & Mcintyre, 2008, 383) The requirements that relate the most to this topic are the Belonging and the Esteem Requirements.Ã Ã
Enrons Fall Essay State the facts of the case. Enron is the Seventh- largest company in the united states but after six months, Enron filed for bankruptcy, the outcome of what has been called the greatest accounting fraud of the 20th century. Twelve thousand employees lost not only their jobs but their entire retirement and life savings, which had been invested in Enron Stocks. Other owners of EnronÃ¢â¬â¢s stocksÃ¢â¬âincluding thousands of ordinary Americans whose pension were also invested in EnronÃ¢â¬â¢s StockÃ¢â¬âlost a total of $70 billion when the value of their stocks collapsed to zero. . What are the systemic, corporate and individual issues raised by this case? Systemic Issues: The EnronÃ¢â¬â¢s greatest accounting fraud was done by the person inside the company who was indeed in a higher position. This is not only a crime in the point of view of law but also an organizational fraud which affect everyone in the organization, including the shareholders, stockholders, and employees. Corporate Issues: The accounting frauds was done by creating the Special Purpose Entity that covers the debt and failing investment in the company and turn it into sales revenue in the financial statement. In simplest way, they turn their liabilities to an asset. This is done through some executives of Enron with the help of Arthur Andersen, the chief auditor of Enron. Andersen violated the Public Accountant practices. Individual Issues: A moral Hazard caused by individual of Enron and the public revelation of Sherron Watkins in everything she knew about the malpractices in the company. . If the value of EnronÃ¢â¬â¢s Stock had not fallen, the Special Purpose Entities perhaps could have continued to operate indefinitely. Suppose that EnronÃ¢â¬â¢s stocks did not fall, and suppose that its accounting adhered to the letter, if not the spirit, of GAAP rules. In that case in your view, was there anything with what Enron did? Explain. If the practice was allowed by GAAP and the Enron did not fall is stil l consider as unethical behavior for the only purpose resulting for this action is fraudulence. If fraudulence is not the purpose of some person in EnronÃ¢â¬â¢s, then it would be Sherron Watkins who behave unethically for revealing the company information without the authorization of the company itself. 4. Who in your judgment, was morally responsible for the collapsed of Enron? Andrew Fastow, EnronÃ¢â¬â¢s former CFO, for setting up limited partnership called Special Purpose Entity and Arthur Andersen for being an accessory to the crime of Andrew Fastow.
Monday, July 22, 2019
Transformatiomal Leadership Essay Leadership is the quality of an individuals behavior whereby he is able to guide the people or their activities towards certain goals. 1. INTRODUCTION Leadership is the ability to get work done with and through others, while at the same time winning their confidence, respect, loyalty and willing co-operation. The first part of this definition is the same as for management. It is the second half, which highlights the difference between a leader and a non-leader. Managers who possess the quality of guiding and directing the subordinates in an organization to perform their jobs efficiently can be called business leaders. A leader interprets the objectives of the group and guides it towards the achievement of these objectives. Leadership means different things to different people, and sometimes the most effective leaders can appear not to be leading at all. Good leadership is essential in all aspects of managerial functions whether, it be motivation, communication or direction. Good leadership ensures success in the organization, and unsatisfactory human performance in any organization can be primarily attributed to poor leadership. Total performance is the result of a host of factors and not of leadership alone, hence can be evaluated in the light of these factors. A leader influences others by his qualities, viz. confidence, communicative ability, awareness of his impact on others as well as perceptions about the situation and his subordinates. The effect of a leaders background experiences, his communication ability, self-awareness, confidence, his perceptions of subordinates, the situation and the self are shown below: SOCIAL VALUES ECONOMIC CONDITIONS LEADER STRUCTURE FOLLOWERS POLITICAL CONSIDERATIONS Fig. 5 Qualities of Leader [Source: Taken from, Prasad LM, (2006) Organizational Behavior, Fig 26.1 p 287] All these factors interact together to determine the leaders ability to influence others. 2. TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP The concepts of transformation and transaction leadership was first introduced by James MacGregor Burns (1978), what was once the treatment of political leadership is now widely used in the fields of organizational psychology. Leaders who raises the motivation of followers to reach far beyond their established standards and that promotes effective change individually and holistically in organizations are all characteristics of a transformational leader. In contrast, transactional leaders are extrinsic motivators, they accepts the given goals and just do it. In order for us to better understand what each of these leadership styles have to often and how effective they are we need to examine the makeup of these concepts According to Burns (1978) the style of transformational leadership is comprise of four components: idealized influence, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, and individualized consideration: 1. Idealized influence A leader who shows idealized influence is someone who is usually not affair to make very compelling conviction on a stand that they strongly believe in but not necessary the popular stand. Followers often admire idealized influence leaders as they have a clear set of values that they follow and demonstrate as a role model in which followers can identify with the leader by. This trait has a direct relationship to managing oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own emotion in the concept of emotional intelligences (Barling et al., 2000). Leaders can serve as a respectable role model for their followers when they able to display self-control on their emotions which thereby enhances the trust of the relationship. 2. Inspirational motivation The second component of the transformational leadership style is inspirational motivation. As a visionary leader, they can articulate their vision in a powerful persuasive appealing manner that it is naturally inspiring to followers. They will consistently and optimistically communicate the meaning for the task at hand as well as challenging their followers to reach higher than the establish standards. By being able to understand and realize what a followerÃ¢â¬â¢s potential is, the leader can better set goals and push the follower towards success more effectively. This is directly related to the understanding of others component of emotional intelligences. 3. Intellectual stimulation The third is the art of intellectual stimulation. Leaders who are high in intellectual stimulation usually encourage creativity in their followers by setting up an aroma to permit trail and error. Furthermore, these leaders often encourage followers to take risk, follow their own instincts, and there is no such thing as a Ã¢â¬Å"stupid Ã¢â¬Å"suggestion. 4. Individualized consideration Lastly, the component of individualized consideration is the degree of the leaderÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to listen, understand, and attend to the needs of their followers. Making sure that their followers are getting the respect they deserve for their accomplishment. Perhaps being there, as a mentor or a coach for their career advancements or to be a sympathetic support when problematic issues arise. Being able to correctly realize and understand the needs of followers a leader should be evident in the empathy component of emotional intelligences. In contrast the transactional leadership that is very often associated with laissez-fair leadership is more action oriented. It is comprised of two components: Contingent rewards and management-by-exception (Burns 1978). This type of leadership is very distinct in ways that it is very reward oriented. Leaders utilize the promises to reward for good performance and reorganizations to entice followers to perform at their best. Management-by-exception refers to a practice that leaders are there to make sure things continue to work as they are working now. The attitude around these leaders are Ã¢â¬Å"if it isnÃ¢â¬â¢t broken, donÃ¢â¬â¢t fix itÃ¢â¬ , they only intercept when something is going wrong. The management-by-exception leaders are leaders that are very detail oriented and are at a constant alert for things going wrong where they are quick to fix immediate problems. TRANSFORMING LEADERSHIP 3. Visionary Enabler Transforming leadership requires the leader to direct his energies outwards rather than inwards. The focus is on relinquishing the controller/ manipulator in favor of the visionary enabler. To do this, the groups full potential must be allowed to develop by always using the style congruent with their ability and willingness or one even slightly higher on the trusting side. Unfortunately, the opposite is often the case and the group is over led rather than under led. Over leading often-called macho using a style more controlling than appropriate for the groups ability and willingness. It can arise from both personal, psychological reasons and from forces in the organizational and hierarchical structure (Ahuja K, 2005, p.698). The feeling persists that management knows best and that true leadership means the exertion of authority in order to get a reluctant workforce to perform duties to which it contributes little beyond elementary, regimented skills. Managers with such an outlook consistently over lead groups by being more interventionist than necessary. The tendency to over lead is often compounded by the organizational climate. If the top management exhibits, macho, tendencies it is very difficult for a manager to pursue a progression of styles towards trust. If he does, it will be seen as weakness and an abdication of management responsibility rather than a positive process of development. 4. Organizational Constraints to Leadership Role Organizational constraints can be very powerful and, for that reason, it is important that any serious effort at leadership training should begin at the top to ensure that everyone in the hierarchy understands the philosophy and supports the new approach. Transforming Leadership is concerned with the choice of Leadership role, it is generally outward looking long term and proactive. Transforming leadership focus is on vision and values relating to individual and organization. It develops an individual and generates new ideas. It releases energy by creating a sense of belonging and excitement in the job. Visionary/Enabler is the transforming leader required in increasingly complex situation, where performance is difficult to measure directly. Visionary/Enabler creates a mental attitude in a team, creates a feeling that you can do it and ensures that things are possible and success is in all what we are doing. Visionary/Enabler creates a climate of success and a sense of belonging. Visionary/Enabler emphasis that the individual can create a feeling in them, that they will be developed. It promotes self-control and encourages the workforce by giving them responsibilities and ensuring success. Visionary/ Enabler creates a sense of excitement in the job (Ahuja K, 2005, 714). 5. Changes Transforming Leadership Due to changing technology and changing social expectations, industry and commerce is becoming increasingly complex and inter-dependent. As a consequence, work requires higher levels of individual skill and management expertise. These pressures make the, controller, style of management less and less appropriate. As the technical skill of jobs in industry increases, an increasing reliance must be placed on self-motivation of the workforce to ensure high performance. It is marginal effort that makes the crucial difference between satisfactory and outstanding performance. Whereas normal levels of output can be more or less controlled, the marginal effort, which is so crucial, is very much at the discretion of the subordinate. For this reason, the transforming leadership role is increasingly essential. Transforming leadership is required to get the best out of knowledgeable workers (Prasad, 2006, 294). In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s, complex, knowledge based working environment it is increasingly difficult to measure the subordinates, output. Control becomes impossible and has to be replaced by trust and transforming leadership. As the world grows more complex, the individual is not able to understand it alone. Reliance has to be placed on the specialist knowledge of the team requiring creation of the right climate for that knowledge to be applied. The group must be developed to maximize learning and the increase of the knowledge base. Such a climate will also encourage synergy and the sparking of creative interactions (Ahuja K, 2005, 552). Transforming leadership is required to accelerate the shift of the point of congruence in the direction of the visionary/enabler. The transforming leader consciously fights the lure of the interventionist. He creates a sense of vision to inspire the group and place on the team members the responsibility for making decisions and solving their own relationship problems. The transforming leader adopts the visionary/enabler role and frees his followers from the dead hand of the interventionist and transactional routine. Transforming leadership concentrates on the leader in the visionary/enabler role and on avoiding the seductive alternative roles that tend to trap leaders into various forms of controller/manipulator behavior. The transforming leader acts as a visionary/enabler to develop the individual capabilities of his team members and to mould them into a fully functioning team. Above all, he is concerned to create a sense of mission, which will give the team a vision of what their job is all about. This vision carries the group beyond the narrow confines of daily routine and puts work into a context of meaning and value (Prasad, 2006, 364). The transforming leader acts-as a contributor or a catalyst, always-keeping to moderate levels of task and relationships behavior 6. Literature Review Leadership is he ability to get work done with and through others while gaining heir confidence and cooperation. Almost every aspect of work is influenced by, or dependent on, leadership. Leaders have three limiting factors- their own knowledge, and skills, their subordinateÃ¢â¬â¢s skills, and the work environment. Formal leaders (managers, supervisors) are appointed to groups by the organization, and group members choose informal leaders. Formal leaders aim to achieve organizational objectives, whereas informal leaders satisfy the groupÃ¢â¬â¢s needs for friendship and recognition. There are four key sources of leadership: Legitimate power, which comes from being appointed by the organization into a leadership role; expertise or skill power, which comes from having knowledge or skills which will help the group to achieve goals; respect or affection power, where a leader who is liked and respected b subordinates, peers and superiors, will have influence over a group of people; and reward/ coercive power, which comes from the power to influence pay, promotion and recognition of followers. (Yvonne, 2003 196) There are three main approaches to understanding leadership: traits (which involves identifying traits which characterize successful leaders); behavioral (which focuses on leadership functions and style); and contingency (which focuses on situations, matching leadership style with circumstances). There are a number of factors influencing a leaderÃ¢â¬â¢s effectiveness. These range from the leaders background, experience, and expectations, to the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s policies and procedures, and to the prevailing industry trends, and social norms. Bass (1978) suggested that transformational leaders exhibit three key characteristics. These are Ã¯Æ'Ë Charisma Ã¯Æ'Ë Individualized considerations; Ã¯Æ'Ë Intellectual simulation. Transformational leaders are able to arouse enthusiasm, general energy and inspire respect. They also work towards helping others to realize their potential through attention to training and development and at the same time treating others with respect. They also stimulate the imagination of their followers and encourage them to stretch their capabilities. Transformational leadership isnÃ¢â¬â¢t a substitute for transactional leadership; rather it can be seen as going a step beyond transactional leadership. Transformational leaders are more likely to emerge in times of turbulence and rapid change. In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s circumstances where we are experiencing accelerating change transformational leadership offers an opportunity for improved performance. (Yvonne, 2003 197) There is no set formula on how to be an effective leader, but research has highlighted some useful points relating to training style, nature of work and subordinates, and the need to act like a leader. 7. CONLUSION No one is a born leader. People may have certain abilities that enable them to develop into a leader, but they have to work at it. A successful leader is one who is keenly aware of those forces, which are more relevant to his behavior at any given time. He accurately understands himself, the individuals and the group he is dealing with, and the organization and the broader social environment in which he operates (Tannenbaum Schmidt, 1993, 178). However, merely understanding these factors correctly is not enough but he can be successful only when he is able to behave appropriately in the light of these perceptions and understanding. Thus, Ã The successful manager of men can be primarily characterized neither as a strong leader nor as a permissive one. Rather he is one who maintains a high batting average in accurately assessing the forces that determine what his most appropriate behavior at any given time should be and in actually being able to behave accordingly. Being both insightful and flexible, he is less likely to see the problem of leadership as a dilemma.Ã¢â¬ (Tannenbaum Schmidt, 1993, 178). Leadership in business is never a bossism because the leader is not synonym of the boss. Ã A boss depends upon his authority and as such always drives and orders, but a leader relies upon his confidence and goodwill and always believes in coaching and advising his subordinates. Leaders can enhance their performance by adopting a Transformational leadership approach. The successful leadership calls for Ã `The ability to comprehend that human being has different motivating forces in different situations, the ability to inspire, and ability to act in a manner that will develop a climate for responding to and arousing motivations.Ã¢â¬â¢ References Ahuja K. (2005) Personnel Management. Kalyani Publishers. Calcutta. 425-775 Barling, J., Weber, T. and Kelloway, E.K. (1996), Ã¢â¬Å"Effects of Transformational Leadership Training on Attitudinal and Fiscal Outcomes: A Field ExperimentÃ¢â¬ , Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol 81, pp827-32 Barling, Julian, Frank Slater, and E. Kevin Kelloway. Ã¢â¬Å"Transformational leadership and emotional intelligence: an exploratory study.Ã¢â¬ Emerald Volume 21 Number 3 2000: 157-161. Bass, B.M. (1997), Does the Transactional Transformational Leadership Paradigm Transcend Organizational and National Boundaries?Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢ American Psychologist, Vol. 52, pp. 130-9. Burns, J.M. (1978), Leadership, Harper Row, New York, NY David Buchanan Andrzej Huczynski. (2004). Organizational Behavior Ã¢â¬â An Introductory Text, Prentice Hall Hater, J.J. and Bass, B.M (1988), Ã¢â¬Å"SuperiorsÃ¢â¬ Evaluations And SubordinatesÃ¢â¬â¢ Perception of Transformational and Transactional LeadershipÃ¢â¬ , Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 73, pp. 695-702 Hersey P Blanchard K. (2002). Management of Organizational Behavior, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey Lowe, K.B. and Kroeck, K.G. (1996), Effectiveness correlates of transformational and transactional leadership: a meta-analytic reviewÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢, Leadership Quarterly, Vol. 7, pp. 385-426. Prasad LM. (2006). Organizational Behavior. Educational publishers. Daryaganj. P. 262-387 Tennenbam Robbert Schmidt. (1993). How To Choose A Leadership Pattern. Harvard Business Review: May-June, 175-180 Yammarino, F.J. and Dubinsky, A.J. (1994), Transformational Leadership Theory: Using Levels Of Analysis To Determine Boundary ConditionsÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢, Personnel Psychology, Vol. 47, pp. 787-811. Yammarino, F.J., Spangler, W.D. and Bass, B.M. (1993), Transformational Leadership and Performance: A Longitudinal InvestigationÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢, Leadership Quarterly, Vol. 4, pp. 81-102. Yvonne McLaughlin.(2003).Business Management: A practical guide for managers, Supervisors Administrators. Synergy Books International. P.186-215
Sunday, July 21, 2019
Advantages And Disadvantages Of Physician Assisted Suicide Philosophy Essay Physician assisted-suicide is a personal decision which helps end a sufferings life. Physician assisted-suicide can affect a family physically and mentally. Physician-assisted suicide is the most common type of assisted suicide. Physician assisted-suicide or euthanasia describes any case in which a doctor gives a patient the means to carry out their own suicide. ThisÃ medical procedureÃ is most commonly carried out on people withÃ terminal illnesses. Physician assisted-suicide is a controversial issue worldwide. Physician assisted-suicide has bothÃ pros and cons. When a person is suffering from aterminal illnessÃ they are already physically suffering, and should have the right to decide how they want to die. A terminal illness is where either way the person is going to die in a certain amount of time and cant control it. However, physician assisted-suicide is illegal in 47 states, therefore there has to be some type of problem. Physician assisted-suicide should be legal for the people who are already suffering from terminal illnesses. They should not have to suffer anymore. Physician assisted-suicide is necessary in order to put human rights in place. Physician assisted-suicide has many disadvantages. Physician assisted-suicide has many disadvantages because in some states it is not legal and therefore if a physician goes through with the practice the physician will loose their license and can face getting sued. This has happened a few times and is a major problem. Washington and Oregon are currently the only states that permit physician-assisted suicide. Some physicians are not ok with aiding patients in dying, but that is normally not the problem. In source 3 by Reyes B.J, it states that Senate bill 803 prohibitsÃ mercy killings,Ã lethal injections, and active euthanasia, and requires patients to receive informed consent. This explains that if a physician or doctor under any circumstances attempts to perform the suicide in states that it is not legal in, then there will be serious legal consequences. The Senate bill 803 protects the act of physician assisted- suicide. Although many people have their doubts about physician assisted-suicide there are many advantages of physician assisted-suicide. One positive thing about physician assisted-suicide is that physician assisted-suicide gives you the right to decide how you would like to die. In source 4 written by Lee M and Alexander Stingl he discusses the Right to dieÃ debate. The Right to die Debate discusses whether or not people should have the right to die how they want. Many people could argue this because many people have different opinions on this personal issue. This is important because dying is considered a human right. Also ODDA (OregonsÃ Death with Dignity Act) permits physicians to assist terminally ill patients to end their own lives by writing prescriptions forÃ lethal dosesÃ of medication. This means that in the United States, suicide, is no longer against the law. However Physician assisted-suicide still is not legal all throughout the United States. This is because instead of just the individual taking their own life someone else is involved, this makes the issue more complicated because there are legal actions that have to be put in place if anything happens that isnt supposed to. On the other hand physician assisted-suicide impacts some people differently. For example physician assisted-suicide is against the teachings of many religions, such as Catholicism, and some people feel as if it is unfair and unnecessary and against human morals. It is against some religions because physician assisted-suicide is not mentioned in religious readings for example the bible, and God does not believe in physician assisted-suicide. John Pearson writes about how legalizing physician assisted-suicide is unnecessary and painful, both physically and emotionally. If suicide was right then it would have been discovered throughout the ages by the great thinkers in law, ethics, and philosophy. If suicide was right it would have been mentioned in the bible and thats the reason that it is not classified as necessary and why people think it is against certain religions. The termÃ EuthanasiaÃ was taken from the Greek word easy death. This is because it provides a quick andÃ painless death. In some scenarios physician assisted-suicide is best. One example of a scenario where physician assisted-suicide was best, was for Sandra Wiener. This 64 year old woman was lucky to die how she wanted. This particular woman prepared for her own death. Her physician described physician assisted-suicide as an unmentionable, intensely private procedure. Even though the 64 year old knew that what was being done was illegal at the time, her physician still carried out with the procedure. Doing this, she was committing a class E felony. However, it was best for Sandra Wiener, because she was terminally ill and suffering. In the eyes of the law, there have only been 3 acceptable ways involved with taking a life. Killing in self-defense, killing in war, and in the case of capital punishment. Physician assisted-suicide has never been looked upon as right. Many persons who want to legalize assisted suicide probably never looked at the risks that could happen if assisted suicide is legalized. If assisted suicide was legal fifty years ago, we wouldnt have some of the advancements that control pain, nausea, breathlessness and other terminal symptoms, today. Not only that but the money which is obtained from patients that spend a lot on medicine and hospital bills would cease to exist if physician assisted-suicide was legal Some diseases that were terminal a few years ago are cured by newly developed treatments. If we accept assisted suicide now, we might delay the discovery of effective treatments for those diseases that are now terminal. What about the already corrupt society of America? Todays citizens mi ght not be as honorable as one might wish when it comes to collecting on insurance policies and wills. With assisted suicide legalized, how would one regard the suspicious death of a terminally ill individual within the family? Physician-assisted suicide is a term often used to describe the provisions of the ODDA (Oregons Death with Dignity Act) although actions taken within the law do not constitute suicide, physician assisted-suicide, orÃ mercy killingÃ or homicide. Many groups that advocate for the rights of the disabled are against the legalization of physician assisted-suicide. This is because their objection stems largely from what they see as a history of medical discrimination against the disabled particularly the disabled poor. They support a group called Not dead yet. This group is largely against physician assisted-suicide. In the article written by Ann Jackson, she explains the positive outcomes of physician assisted-suicide. In 1997 there was a repeal effort. This repeal effort was to make the ODDA( Oregons Death with Dignity Act) effective. In 1998 the act was successfully effective. This was important because this act allowed a terminally-ill resident of the state to ask his or her doctor for a prescription of life-ending medication. This was positive because it allowed terminally ill patients to end their lives without suffering for any longer. With the technology and advancements in medicine today, who is to say that a persons illness couldnt be cured within the next few months or in the near future. Why end a persons life when you never know what could be in store for them. There is always that possibility of a cure coming out before it is too late. There is always that chance. How can someone else know if another person is really experiencingÃ unbearable pain and suffering? Who gets to be the one to decide or to tell another that their life isnt worth living? The fact is that nobody should be able to dictate what one shall do. People should be responsible for making their own decisions, and if they no longer feel that their decision is right, they have no one else to blame but themselves. They cant blame it on their physician if they do decide that they want to take their own life. Physician assisted- suicide is a very personal decision that should be carefully thought about. Physician-assisted suicide is not taken lightly. This is a very serious medical matter. There are many rules and regulations regarding thisÃ medical procedure. Many wavers andÃ consent formsÃ have to be signed and notarized before undergoing this medical procedure. This medical procedure is a positive procedure for most families who feel as if their loved one is suffering, or has been suffering for to long. To ensure that the patient receives full trust within the doctor there is an oath. TheÃ Hippocratic OathÃ is an oath taken by doctors which ensures that they swear to practice medicine ethically. This ensures that the physician or doctors prescribing the patient with the lethal medicine which kills them, understands what they are doing and ensures that they are doing it correctly. This oath is like a backup consent. If the doctors or physicians are not abiding by this oath they can face serious consequences which could make them loose theirÃ medical licenseÃ and even be sentenced to face many years in jail. In source 5 written by Andrew Walter he mentions that the Hippocratic Oath protects the patients when undergoing this medical procedure, Andrew Walter is very true when stating this because it protects the patients and the patients understand what is going to happen during a normal procedure. Overall physician assisted-suicide has both its advantages and disadvantages. Some people believe that physician assisted-suicide is morally wrong and unnecessary, but on the other hand some people think it is the best thing to do and is necessary to move on in life. Either way physician assisted-suicide is a controversial issue and has caused many issues over time. CurrentlyÃ physician assisted suicideÃ is only legal in 3 states and Hawaii is still trying to make it legal as the fourth state.
Saturday, July 20, 2019
Public School Finance: Prospectus Paper Oklahoma utility companies are currently protesting the amount of taxes that they must pay. The dispute came about because of the difference between what utility companies and other commercial properties and other entities such as railroads and airlines must pay. The utility companies originally protested all of the taxes that they had to pay. They are now protesting the percentage of taxes that they must pay above what the commercial properties pay. The money is currently going into escrow accounts until a decision over the taxes has been made. According to Oklahoma Tax Commission estimates, the protests could affect more than $63 million in funding for schools and counties across the state. The money will not be allocated into the schools until the dispute has been settled. A large group of Oklahoma superintendents has been meeting with the big four utility companies (Public Service Company of Oklahoma, Oklahoma Natural Gas, Oklahoma Gas and Electric and Southwestern Bell) to try to reach a compromise. The most recent meeting occurred on Monday, November 28, 1994. At that meeting Marvin Stokes, Superintendent of Byng Schools, proposed that the utility companies be assessed at 25 mills and that commercial properties be assessed at 20 mills. This would generate around $100 million in new revenue for Oklahoma schools. Eugene Chitwood, Okemah County Assessor, suggested that public service companies be assessed at 23 mills and that commercial properties be assessed at 15-19 mills. This would generate around $50 million in new revenue for Oklahoma schools. The utility companies are currently paying 22.85 mills and commercial properties are paying 11 mills. Private advalorem property is assessed at 11-14 mills. The utility companies were receptive to the suggestions. They do not care if their taxes are increased as long as commercial properties are assessed at a higher level as well. Another idea proposed to the utility companies for their tax rate to decrease to 21.85 mills. This would free up around 58 million dollars immediately if the utility companies agree. The group of Oklahoma superintendents will meet with Glen Johnson ,Speaker of the House, on Monday, December 5, 1995. The superintendents feel that it would be to their advantage to have there concerns heard by the House even though the State Equity board has the final say. The State Equity Board is comprised of the Governor, Lieutenant Governor, State Superintendent of Schools, State Treasurer, the State Auditor, and the State Secretary of Agricultural. In order to get a measure passed by the State Equity Board, a measure must receive four of the 7 votes.
The Love Poems of Rich, Marvell and Campion Adrienne RichÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Twenty-One Love Poems,Ã¢â¬ which explore the nature of lesbian love, differ strikingly from classic love poems written by a man to a woman, such as Andrew MarvellÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"To His Coy MistressÃ¢â¬ and Thomas CampionÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"There Is a Garden in Her Face.Ã¢â¬ RichÃ¢â¬â¢s poems focus on the Ã¢â¬Å"usÃ¢â¬ aspect of love, the concept of two strong, yet imperfect women facing all oppositions together, while the love poems written by men are far more reverent, almost worshipful of their subjects. The lesbian poems have a sense of love being Ã¢â¬Å"realÃ¢â¬ , a connection based on far more than physical attraction, whereas the menÃ¢â¬â¢s poems focus on an idealized view of the woman: beautiful, pure, distant. The women in Marvell and CampionÃ¢â¬â¢s poems are lovely faÃ §ades, storybook figures without any real depth or imperfections. Perhaps the lesbian love poems could be seen as less eloquent, or less flawlessly romantic, bu t the romance in them is found in the genuine nature of the love. Rich is doubtlessly writing about experiences she has had, real people she has loved, whereas Marvell and Campion could ostensibly be writing about any beautiful, but otheriwse characterless, woman that theyÃ¢â¬â¢ve seen. The stress that Rich places on the two members of the couple as equals is a striking contrast to MarvellÃ¢â¬â¢s and CampionÃ¢â¬â¢s poems, in which the female subject is placed on a pedestal and kept at a distance. There is little sense of a real-life relationship between the man and the woman. The menÃ¢â¬â¢s poems are mere descriptions of the woman and their love for her, with little discussion of how they interact, or how they may feel about her personality. Rich, however, creates an atmosphere of Ã¢â¬Å"us against the worldÃ¢â¬ , writing Ã¢â¬Å"I touch you knowing we werenÃ¢â¬â¢t born tomorrow, / and somehow, each of us will help the other live, / and somewhere, each of us must help the other dieÃ¢â¬ (Rich 237). Certainly, this discrepancy is at least partially a product of the different eras in which the poems were written; Campion and Marvell were writing in the 16th and 17th centuries, respectively, while RichÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Twenty-One Love PoemsÃ¢â¬ was written in the mid-1970Ã¢â¬â¢s. Victorian and Elizabethan culture dictated that the woman be far more removed from the often vile realities of life Ã¢â¬â revered, but not seen as an equal partner in a relationship. Sexuality would not have been a topic to be openly discussed.