Saturday, August 31, 2019

Literature Review Methane

Methane Recovery from Landfills Utilization as a Potential Energy Source and Impact on Reduction of Green House Gasses According to The Conference Board of Canada, current Canadian municipal solid waste (MSW) generation levels are approximately 30 million tonnes per year, with a rate of 894 kg per capita, 67 percent of which is landfilled. (Jones L. et al. 2002) Sanitary landfills burry MSW under soil, sanctioning a complex series of reactions to occur, where anaerobic microorganisms decompose a portion of the organic fraction of the waste producing methane and carbon dioxide.Methane generation and emission from landfills are topics of major interest due to methane's role in the greenhouse effect, migration of hazard potential, health and safety issues and energy applications. The objective of this literature review is to provide a concise relationship between MSW and landfill gasses (LFG), details of potential methods used for capturing methane as appose to emitting the gas as well as the benefits of doing. Rendering to information written by D. R. Reinhart and T. G. Townsend (1998), MSW contains approximately 50 – 70 % of biodegradable material, such as food, paper, wood, and garden trimmings.Once MSW is deposited into a landfill, it undergoes a number of biological, physical and chemical changes. These changes are greatly dependent on site conditions, waste characteristics, temperature, quantity of oxygen, moisture content and other factors. (Nozhevinikova et al. 1993) The most important reactions occurring within the landfill are those involving the microbes which begin to consume the carbon in the organic material, in turn causing the decomposition and eventually leading to the evaluate of LFG.In sanitary landfills, the process of burying waste and regularly covering deposits with a low permeability material creates an internal anaerobic environment that favors methane producing bacteria since the presence of oxygen is lacking. Pathways leading to t he production of methane and carbon dioxide from anaerobic digestion of organic fraction of solid waste are briefly described bellow: 1) Decomposition of organic matter- In this preliminary process, compounds of higher molecular mass (Lipids, proteins, nucleic acids etc. are transformed into intermediate mass compounds making them much more suitable for the microorganisms as a source of energy and cell carbon 2) Conversion of decomposed matter to Organic Acid- In this phase, the existing microorganisms convert the intermediate molecular mass compounds into lower molecular mass compounds such as compel organic acids. 3) Conversion of Acetic Acid to Methane Gas- During this stage, the microorganisms transform the acetic acid into methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) gasses. Cassia de Brito Galvao, T. and Pos, W. H. 2002) As the solid waste decomposes in landfills, the gas which is emitted is composed of approximately 50 percent CH4 and 50 percent CO2, both of which are green house g asses (GHG) (Bingemer, H G. , ; Crutzen, P. J. 1987) With Landfilling being the primary source of disposal of MSW around the world, (Encyclopedia Britanica 2012) methane emissions from landfill represent the largest source of GHG emissions from the waste sector, contributing around 700 Mt CO2-e. United Nations Environmental Programme 2012) As recorded by Environment Canada (2010), similar trends exist nationally with emissions from Canadian landfills accounting for 20% of the total national methane emissions. Information gathered in a thesis prepared by Palananthakumar, B. (1991) outlines the proportion of methane produced world wide from landfills, and can be seen illustrated graphically below in Figure 1. 0. Figure 1. 0: % of Methane Production Contributions Worldwide from Landfill Existing research leads to the confident statement that methane is a potent greenhouse gas.As summarized in a 2009 article from the Municipal Solid Waste, the Journal for Municipal Solid Waste Professio nals, In its Fourth Assessment Report (2007), The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) concluded that, on a 100-year time frame, each molecule of methane has a global warming potential 25 times higher than that associated with a molecule of carbon dioxide. (Duffy, D. P. et al 2009) Table 1. 0 summarizes the enumerated global warming potential for the primary greenhouse gasses discussed. Table 1. : Global Warming Potential (GWP) for a Given Time Horizon Greenhouse Gas| GWP20-yr (kg CO2-e| GWP (IPCC 2007) 100-yr (kg CO2-e)| GWP 500-yr (kg CO2-e)| Carbon Dioxide (CO2)| 1| 1| 1| Methane (CH4)| 72| 25| 7. 6| (Forster, P. et al 2007) In the last decade, attention to methane emissions from landfills has grown significantly with increased and ongoing awareness of global warming. The efforts of individual landfills as well as the nations as a whole are closely monitored for the control of methane emissions.A trend has been observed that the magnitude of methane emission has been slightly decreasing, which is potentially due to the development of LFG to energy projects. Contrary to the negative perception associated with all greenhouse gasses, capturing this LFG can lead to beneficial outcomes. Generally, recovered methane either flares or is used as source of energy. The use of the gas as a source of energy is economical and environmentally friendly method to reduce LFG emissions. There are three primary approaches for the utilization of LFG.They include; 1) Direct use of gas locally 2) Generation of electricity and distribution through power grid 3) Processing and injection into a gas pipeline. (Palananthakumar, B. 1991) The captured LFG has the potential to provide a continuous source of energy and improve local air quality. In addition, using LFG can significantly reduce GHG emission, making the option of exploiting this alternative energy source a very viable option to MSW management. The United States Environmental Protection Agency has utilized this M SW management option and continues to encourage it.They have created a program that aims to help reduce methane emissions from landfills by assisting and encouraging the recovery and use of LFG as an energy resource. Since the programs inception, Landfill Methane Outreach Program (LMOP) has assisted 520 LFG energy projects in the United States reduce landfill CH4 emissions and avoid CO2 emissions by a combined 44 million metric tons of carbon equivalent. The reduction of methane emission through this program has slightly influenced the overall emission of LFG in USA.The success of LMOP can be reckoned by observing statistics from 2010 where reductions from all operational LFG energy projects were equivalent to Annual GHG emissions from 18. 5 million passenger vehicles. (United States Environmental Protection Agency 2012) A variety of technologies exist to generate electricity from collected methane including, internal combustion engines, gas turbines, and microturbines. Although the re is a diversity of technologies, approximately eighty five percent of existing LFG electricity generation projects use internal combustion engines or turbines. United States Environmental Protection Agency 2012) â€Å"How much energy can Municipal solid waste produce? † is a common question among existing research. According to â€Å"An Overview of Landfill Gas Energy in the United States† published by U. S. Environmental Protection Agency Landfill Methane Outreach Program, one million tons of landfilled MSW can produce an electricity generation capacity of approximately 0. 8 MW. To further quantify this value, allowing the magnitude of the electricity generation to be understood, Focus on Energy (2003) outlines that 0. 8MW would be drawn to power approximately 8 000 100w light bulbs.It can be concluded that LFG recovery wreaks benefits environmentally, socially and economically. LFG recovery, particularly methane, also makes an impact on the larger issue termed gree n house effect, as it is amongst the most cost effective and feasible measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The recovered LFG can be directly or indirectly utilized to produce energy, which is a perpetually small, however; a very important component of an integrated approach to the solid waste management given that the use of landfills continues to remain the predominant method of municipal solid waste disposal in most countries. Global Methane 2012) References Bingemer, H G. , ; Crutzen, P. J. (1987). The Production of Methane from Solid Wastes. † Journal of Geophysical Research, 90(D2), 2181–2187. Cassia de Brito Galvao, T. and Pos, W. H. (2002) â€Å"Landfill Biogas Management: Case of Chilean Sanitary Landfills. † Recovering Energy from Waste, 183-194. Conference Board of Canada. (2011). â€Å"Municipal Waste Generation. † How Canada Performs, ; http://www. conferenceboard. ca/hcp/details/environment/municipal- waste-generation. aspx#_ftnref3; ( Sept. 28th, 2012) Duffy, D.. P et al (2009). â€Å"Moving Up†¦ to the Top of the Landfill. Municipal Solid Waste Management. 19(2), 36-39. Encyclopedia Britanica (2012). â€Å"Solid Waste Management. † ;http://www. britannica. com/EBchecked/topic/553362/solid-wastemanagement /72390/Sanitary-landfill; (Sept. 29th, 2012) Environment Canada (2010). â€Å"Municipal Solid Waste and Greenhouse Gases. † ;http://www. ec. gc. ca/gdd-mw/default. asp? lang=En;n=6F92E701-1; (Sept 29th, 2012) Focus On Energy (2003). â€Å"Electricity Basics for Renewable Energy Systems†, Focus on Energy, Wisconsin. Forster, P. et al (2007) â€Å"Changes in Atmospheric Constituents and in Radiative Forcing. Climate Change 2007:The Physical Science Basis. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA. Global Methane (2012). â€Å"Basic Concepts of Integrated Solid Waste Management. † International Best Practices Guide for LFGE Projects, Global Methan e Initiative, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Jones, L. et al. (2002). â€Å"Environmental Indicators 5th Edition. † Critical Issues Bulletin, The Fraser Institute: Vancouver, BC Landfill Methane Outreach Program (2012). â€Å"An Overview of Landfill Gas Energy in the United States† U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.Nozhevinikova, A. N. , et al. (1993). â€Å"Microbiological Process in Landfills. † Water Science Technology, 27(2), 243-252. Reinhart, D. R. , and Townsend, T. G. (1998). Landfill Bioreactor Design ; Operation, CRC Press LLC: Boca Raton, FL, USA. Palananthakumar, B. (1991). â€Å"Modeling of Methane Generation, Oxidation and Emission in Landfills. † M. Eng. Thesis, Asian Institute of Technology School of Environment, Resources and Development, Bangkok, Thailand. United States Environmental Protection Agency (2012). â€Å"Landfill Gas Energy:A Guide to Developing and Implementing Greenhouse Gas Reduc tion Programs. Local Government Climate and Energy Strategy Guides, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. United States Environmental Protection Agency (2011). â€Å"Landfill Methane Outreach Program. † Environmental Protection Agency, ;http://www. epa. gov/lmop/ faq/ lmop. html; (Sept 29th, 2012) United Nations Environmental Programme (2012) â€Å"Waste and Climate Change: Global Trends and Strategy Framework. † United Nations Environmental Programme Division of Technology, Industry and Economics International Environmental Technology Centre, Osaka, Japan.

Friday, August 30, 2019

Vibration Measurement Instruments

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT In some practical situations, it might be difficult to develop a mathematical model of the system and predict its vibration characteristics through an analytical study. In such cases, we can use experimental methods to measure the vibration response of the system to a known input. This helps in identifying the system in terms of its mass, stiffness, and damping. In practice the measurement of vibration becomes necessary for the following reasons: 1.The increasing demands of higher productivity lead to higher operating speeds of machinery and efficient use of materials through lightweight structures. These trends make the occurrence of resonant conditions more frequent during the operation of machinery and reduce the reliability of the system. Hence the periodic measurement of vibration of machinery and structures becomes essential to ensure adequate safety margins. Any observed shift in the natural frequencies or other vibration characteristics will indicate eit her a failure or a need for maintenance of the machine. 2.The measurement of the natural frequencies of a structure or machine is useful in selecting the operational speeds of nearby machinery to avoid resonant conditions. 3. The theoretically vibration characteristics of a machine or structure may be different from the actual values due to the assumptions made in the analysis. 4. The measurement of frequencies of vibration and the forces developed is necessary in the design and operation of active vibration-isolation systems. 5. In many applications, the survivability of a structure or machine in a specified vibration environment is to be determined.If the structure or machine can perform the expected task even after completion of testing under the specified vibration environment, it is expected to survive the specified conditions. 6. Continuous systems are often approximated as multi-degree-of-freedom systems for simplicity. If the measured natural frequencies and mode shapes of a continuous system are comparable to the computed natural frequencies and mode shapes of the multi-degree of- freedom model, then the approximation will be proved to be a valid one. . The measurement of input and the resulting output vibration of a system help in identifying the system in terms of its mass, stiffness, and damping. 8. The information about ground vibrations due to earthquakes, fluctuating wind velocities on structures, random variation of ocean waves, and road surface roughness are important in the design of structures, machines, oil platforms, and vehicle suspension systems.In general, a transducer is a device that transforms changes in mechanical quantities (such as displacement, velocity, acceleration, or force) into changes in electrical quantities (such as voltage or current). Since the output signal (voltage or current) of a transducer is too small to be recorded directly, a signal conversion instrument is used to amplify the signal to the required value.The ou tput from the signal conversion instrument can be presented on a display unit for visual inspection, or recorded by a recording unit, or stored in a computer for later use. The data can then be analyzed to determine the desired vibration characteristics of the machine or structure. Depending on the quantity measured, a vibration measuring instrument is called a vibrometer, a velocity meter, an accelerometer, a phase meter, or a frequency meter. Reference link: http://classof1. com/homework-help/engineering-homework-help

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Case study Human Social Behavior

Case study Human Social Behavior Introduction- This article is about the human behavior and the various factors which affects the human behavior. One of the factors that have a great impact on the behavior of human is the social environment and here all types of sociological effects are discussed. Various individual environmental factors and their impact on behavior are also discussed here. Inheritances also affects the human behavior and in this article two types of inheritances are discussed and that are cultural and the genetic inheritances. Nature and nurture both has impacts on the development of humans and nurture has some of the effects on behavior of humans. In the end of the article there is a detail discussion about the evolutionary thinking and the factors like psychological and the biological which changes the human behavior Body 1-7 – Behavior of the human being decides the overall personality and this behavior of human are influenced by many factors like cultural, economic, and sociological. Hu man behavior is influenced by the most discussed effect that is the sociological effect. The most complex society of any creature on earth is of humans and it means self-preservation beyond the level of persona; physical survival is extended by us. Humans live in a very typical society in which there is bonding between the groups for the purpose of mutual and protection. Families, friendships, associations etc are included in these groups. Due to the formation of society and humans social links increases the bond between different people which is a human behavior. One of the bad behavior that every human being have is of greed and this behavior of human finishes them completely but due to society and links with different families and groups decreases the human greed of money or anything else. Due to increase of population and the urbanization, the people have started neglecting the social relationship and everyone is giving importance to the money rather than social relationship and behavior. Because of this, the rate of crime and deviant behavior of humans are found in cities. All these sociological effects have impacts on the behavior of the human beings and the social environment plays an important role in the development of the child which includes the attainment of full genetic and human potential. (Conklin, 2004) The biological and the psychological changes occurring in the human beings are basically during time period from birth and the end of adolescence. Genetic factors are the factors which are related to the genes of the child and also refer to the changes that occur at every point in growth. Social environment plays a very important role in the development of child and a new born baby do not experience any fear to contact with any specific people but after the time period of 8-12 months there is a change in them and they start to prefer the people who are familiar and also start showing the feelings like anxiety and distress when they are separated from their family members. Social environment helps the child to understand the social rules in the period of preschool and adulthood. The time period of middle childhood have the characteristics of friendship with age mates and also the beginning of romantic love. Another social effect on the child development is of bonding between the different groups of people and the idea of maintaining social relations develops in the child which helps him/her lifelong. There are various processes which are controlled genetically and they are known as maturation. Maturation is related to the mental and the physical development of the child and a child is said to be matured when he/she becomes capable of taking their own decisions and are well aware of the things which are good or bad for them. According to the some doctors and live examples it is seen that usually maturity comes at the age of 18 and the main thing to consider here is that is maturity comes from the social environment. All the social factors like relationship in society, working in society etc, helps in the attainment of complete genetic and the potential of human. But along with social environment there are factors which are known as individual environmental that affect the social behavior of human.

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Large Corporations managing change,internal change drivers and Research Paper - 1

Large Corporations managing change,internal change drivers and catalysts - Research Paper Example In the organizational context researchers define change as â€Å"necessary way of life in most organizations†1. Again, some other researchers have defined organizational change as â€Å"a relatively enduring alteration of the present state of an organization or its components or interrelationships amongst the component and their differential and integral functions, in totality, in order to attain greater feasibility in the framework of the current and future environment†2. The present study intends to investigate the reasons that compel firms to change, and how companies manage the change process. In this regard, the role of internal change drivers and catalysts is vital. Mills and Mills write in their book Understanding Organizational Change that the operations of a company as well as other organizations are affected by a variety to environmental factors such as leadership change, mergers and acquisitions, downsizing, introduction of new products, industrial disputes, political and legal climate, changing consumer preferences and technology3. Change is the only thing constant in the environment and is taking place every day. However, when we refer to organizational change, we are specifically referring to change that has significant impact how employees think about their organization and the changes they need to make in their work to cope with it. Organizational Change is thus referred to as a change in the core aspect of a company’s operations. It has been determined with the previous discussion that for organizations change is not merely inevitable but to a great extent essential for survival. However this does not automatically imply that people would be readily accepting the change. The truth is that changing an established behavior makes people uncomfortable, and the result is resistance4. Implementing change is a very challenging task. The unfamiliar makes the employees suspicious; it is their natural concern

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Unit 3 Discussion Big Ideas in Science Research Paper

Unit 3 Discussion Big Ideas in Science - Research Paper Example So the sooner one reveals a theory the more time it gives to the world to explore it. 2. Skepticism can be faced by presenting facts and reasoning understood by the scientist. It would be ideal to detail the process of the whole theory the idea behind it and the reason why it occurred. Any theory needs to have a solid scientific reasoning to be approved. According to (Oskin,2013) â€Å"Wegeners theory of continental drift was soundly denounced by geologists. Part of the opposition was because Wegener didnt have a good model to explain how the continents moved back and forth†.It is necessary for the theorist to prove that the previous theory was wrong and reason for it. The scientific detailing of a theory can avoid the scientist being labeled a crack pot. 3. The best way to explain the continental drift is by analyzing the plate tectonics with GPS. GPS is Global Positioning System which works with the help of satellite devices. According to (Garmin ,1996) â€Å"The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a satellite-based navigation system made up of a network of 24 satellites placed into orbit by the U.S. Department of Defense†. It shows that the earth’s plates are floating on the surface and it makes it clear that they are moving all the time. Event the devices that project 3D image of seismic activity is important for supporting Wegner’s theory. One of the evidence which can be shows is the presence of Negroid races in many parts of continents. It can be seen that there is Negroid races in India and other Asian countries and even the topography and vegetation is somewhat similar. The wild life and aquatic animals remain somewhat similar and this can be because the animals shared a common ancestor and had few changes due to evolution. The evidence can be collected by visiting some parts of continents and showcasing its inhabitants and geographical nature. Patrick is quiet right that Wegner has not revealed the theory too soon

Monday, August 26, 2019

The characteristics of performance management Essay

The characteristics of performance management - Essay Example Performance management has been promoted, researched and emphasised upon in small and large enterprises since long. The topic has evolved from much technical performance appraisal system. However, with the passage of time, increased complexity in businesses and emerging concepts of knowledge transfer, innovation, strategic human resources and greater attention on capabilities of human assets have transformed the way performance has been perceived, measured, judged and understood in organizational perspective. Even its application to subsequent HR policies and strategies has also changed drastically with the advent of information systems, international operations and establishing cultural symmetries between multinational offices of firms. In such context, it becomes essential to revisit the definitions of these two areas of HRM, chalk out differences between the two and identify reasons for prevailing confusion. Performance management can be defined as â€Å"a process for establishin g a shared understanding about what is to be achieved and how it is to be achieved, and an approach to managing people that increases the probability of achieving success† (Armstrong 2009). Thus, thriving on this basic definition of performance management, it can be deciphered that performance management is concerned with synchronisation of individual and organizational goals, setting up of expectations, duties and responsibilities and providing for the development of employees through a modification in their attitude, work behavior, skills and abilities. The characteristics of performance management can now be charted out. Armstrong (2009) next opines that performance management system is the sum total of five basic elements- agreement, dialogue, measurement, feedback and reinforcement. Agreement takes place between what organizations want to achieve with the help of contribution of its employees and what employees want to achieve with the help of organizational culture, stru cture and policies. Dialogue is the sharing and dissemination of ideas, data and information to and fro employer and employees. In this respect, not only the managerial heads, but also line managers are responsible for the establishment of a two-way communication channel that exhibits transparency, reliability and truthfulness. Measurement of individual performance is based on continuously evolving standards, indicators and targets. Combination of these three tenets serve as foundation for constructive feedback mechanism through which employees identify their own deficiencies and shortcomings and policy makers also allow and arrange for their development and reinforcement of positive behavioural traits. Secondly, performance management is a flexible, continuous and evolving process which takes note of both past experiences and future requirements to chalk out present policies and strategies. It is not in the nature of authoritative or bureaucratic management where commands and order s follow from the upper echelons of hierarchy. Rather, it is a process done in partnership with employees themselves. As such, continuous changes in role expectations, job requirements, skills and competencies needed and other work aspects keep on surfacing out. Known by various names like merit rating, merit evaluation and others, performance appraisal is a narrower concept with respect to performance management. It is more formally and operationally focused upon evaluating the performance and work behavior of employees through the use of various rating techniques. Grote (1996:3) state that performance appraisals serve to fulfil three major objectives- one organizational and two individual. Organizations use it as a tool to determine the contribution of employees towards the achievement of

Learning jounal Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Learning jounal - Essay Example Team working also facilitates people with further learning related to professionalism. In professional lives, team working is very significant, as people are required to be in teams. Team working also deals with communication. Communication is a skill that accommodates people to deal with one another. With the help of communication, people learn about living and working in group and teams. With the help of communication, we are able to get information and knowledge about people’s thinking, ideas and skills. Communication is a two way process in which the speaker and listener both have to communicate in a business setting in order to facilitate further communication. Leadership’s significance cannot be devalued as it is the leader who is able to keep people in teams and who facilitates them to follow him/her as a torch bearer (Renesch 1994). A leader is one who keeps people motivated towards tasks’ performance. In organizations and companies, leadership is very persuasive aspect, as it is only because of leaders that employees accompany each other towards a single motive and objective. Therefore, while working in a team, I learnt about team working, communication and leadership, all of which are very fundamental in professional life. All of these skills are interlinked to each other. Group effectiveness is very crucial in obtainment of jobs done. For every task or performance that is to be done by a group, there are some factors that are necessary to make the group productive and effective. The key factors that influence the effectiveness of a group are the characteristics of group members such as relevant professional skills, interpersonal skills, balanced diversity and time frame, member role, group size, norms, cohesiveness, development, adjourning and virtual communication (Devine, et. al 1999). Team working is all about cooperation and collaborative working because people are not working as individuals but

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Domestic Violence Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Domestic Violence - Essay Example Domestic violence has ruined the peace of the society. More and more people are falling into depression and anxiety with the grief of a lost or killed child, parent, sibling or spouse. Ethical dilemma to domestic violence: The ethical dilemma to domestic violence can be understood with the help of an exemplary case study. Let’s suppose that a woman who mothers three children gets hurt by her husband. She approaches a counselor who has newly started his career. The woman tells the counselor that she is physically abused by her husband. The counselor advises the woman to seek divorce and take her kids with her away from the husband. But the woman can not do that as she is afraid her husband would find and kill her along with her children if she attempts escape. In such a case, the counselor feels too inexperienced to give an informed suggestion. If he tells the authorities about this, his competence as a counselor would be suspected. If he gives a decision as he considers approp riate, this might take away four lives. Thus, the counselor is put into ethical dilemma because of the domestic violence experienced by his client. Likewise, several other points can be made from the same case study. Some common forms of abuses in domestic violence: Some of the most common forms of abuses people experience in the domestic violence are physical abuse, sexual abuse, social and emotional abuse, isolation, intimidation, discrimination, racism, threat and neglect. Each of these can be further divided into many forms of violence like punching, hitting, pulling, pushing, restraining, kicking and even hugging. Potential consequences of domestic violence: Consequences of domestic violence are very alarming. It causes homelessness. In order to escape interaction with the dangerous people, people put themselves into social exclusion. Many women who are offered physical, sexual, emotional or verbal abuse by their husbands take divorce get separated from them. This not only dist orts the whole family setup but also ruins the future of the children. Dysfunctional families, broken homes, depression, social exclusion and suicide are some of the potential consequences of domestic violence (Schweitzer, 2011). My stance on domestic violence and the basis for that: I hate domestic violence. I believe that domestic violence ruins the whole society by distorting the family system. I believe that in order to make a healthy society, people need to live in a strong family system. Almost all religions require their followers to live in nuclear family system. In a nuclear family system, everybody has well defined roles and responsibilities. A father earns bread for the family, while a mother nurtures the children. The children are perfectly brought up with the mutual efforts of both the mother and the father. The broken families harm the psychology of the children along with the separating partners, and they are not able to play a constructive role in the society. Applic ations that can be made to me professionally as a member of the Criminal Justice System: As a member of the Criminal Justice System, I can receive applications to make rational decisions and formulate policies that would address the individualistic concerns of the victims. â€Å"Professionals in criminal justice are called upon to enforce laws and also to implement policies. Policies can be formal or informal.† (Pollock, 2010, p. 154). Formal policies are formulated by the government’

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Narcotics in the 3rd World Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Narcotics in the 3rd World - Essay Example It is a well known fact that Colombia is the only country in the world where the three main plant based illegal drugs are produced in significant amounts and it is involved in illegal drug production, international smuggling and marketing. In the 1980s Colombia became the largest cocaine producer in the world and in the 90s it also became the largest coca grower nation. Additionally, it is also said to produce and supply the major share of heroin consumed in the USA and exports illegal marijuana. In the past few decades illegal drug production and trafficking in Colombia has signed the country’s history. In fact it can be said that in no other country in the history of the world in this illegal market of drugs has had so dramatic social, political and economic effects. The lack of proper policy system to control this market has been a major drawback in Colombia and has contributed greatly to changes in institutions and values. This market has been used to generate funds for left and right wing armed actors of the indefinite war experienced in the country (Thoumi, 2002). These are some of the major reasons that Colombia drug system is so unstable compared to the other countries. Drug-trafficking capital continues to exercise substantial power and influence in Colombia and internationally. This is mainly because Colombia is able to meet its need for raw materials to be processed into psychoactive substances for which there is a demand in world markets (Vargas, 2000). Iran, Pakistan and Afghanistan form the Golden Cescent countries. Golden Triangle countries include Laos, Thailand and Myanmar and these are the regions responsible for the majority of opium, heroin and cocaine production. In fact though these groups financed their needs through drug production and trafficking, they cannot be compared to the Colombia market. Colombia is in the middle of an institutional crisis characterized by

Friday, August 23, 2019

Analysis of the underlying causes Domestic Violence against Women in Essay

Analysis of the underlying causes Domestic Violence against Women in Pakistan - Essay Example With the upsurge in media channels, newspapers and different information access points coming of age, the world is getting to know the dark side behind the domestic woman of Pakistan, within the four walls of her home or of her master’s. The mechanism which could be discussed here in line with the control and prevention of domestic violence against women in the country comprise of first and foremost an understanding that the women are being treated rather shabbily within the state. It is this realization of the grave problem that could tackle half the problem in a whisker. The police authorities fail to curb the crimes that are committed on these women because they do not accept that the crimes are carried out in the first place. This is because the system of bribery is rampant within the society and police authorities of Pakistan, according to recent surveys carried out globally, is the most corrupt organization followed up by judiciary, which speaks volumes of the law and order situation that is present within Pakistan. Now domestic violence against women becomes an all the more significant aspect since it is seldom being reported to the authorities and in most of those cases the matters are hushed up before they could be moved ahead any further. Whilst drafting a five year plan for the control and prevention regimes of domestic violence within Pakistan, it is pertinent to know what the real factors behind devising such a plan are. If only the factors are ascertained beforehand, it would give a clear idea as to the eventual ramifications in the lead-up to the results and findings of the violence that is taking place within the nation. There is the subject of poverty and lack of education that kicks off the topic of domestic violence. Then men are frustrated with the norms of the society and tend to vent their feelings by taking out violent means on the women within their homes. Also the aspect of having

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Overcoming Multimedia Addiction Essay Example for Free

Overcoming Multimedia Addiction Essay Some of the students nowadays are struggling to stay awake while the rest of the world is asleep just to read their friends’ posts and comments and status on Facebook. They even spend most of their time staring at the big screens of their personal computers just to play online games like DOTA and Counterstrike. Some also spend their money just to buy the latest mobile phones, mp3 players, and other techno gadgets out there. However, they must keep in mind that everything has its own limits. Otherwise, it can become a cause of concern and in extreme cases, addiction. Multimedia addiction can cause destruction and violence to students. Multimedia is simply defined as multi tasking of applications in a single device or gadget. This includes graphics, animation, pictures, videos, and other applications which can be opened simultaneously or consecutively. Smart phone, laptop, iPod, television, and mp4 player are some of many multimedia gadgets that are ‘in’ especially to students because of its amazing features. Consider the television. Whether it is a box, slim, or flat screen, it has become almost like another member of the household. It sits in the living room, in the kitchen, or even in the terrace of your house. It bombards us with all kinds of information about almost anything under the sun. It informs us on what laundry soap to use; what toothpaste to brush our teeth with, or which candidate to vote in the 2013 election. It brings us local news and news from around the world. And of course, it entertains us with sports, music, movies, telenovelas, lifestyle segments and variety programs. Cellular phones, on the other hand, are used for communication purposes. But because of technological advancements, new applications like built- in cameras are added to them. That’s why many people patronize it so much. Laptops are made for easy handling. Unlike personal computers, you can now bring it anywhere because of its small size. Almost every student today has his or her own laptops. The dependence on multimedia gadgets extend to students who became the primary beneficiaries of these gadgets. Tech- net survey said that 42 % of students are using mobile phones, 36 % are using laptop, 15 % are using play station, and 7 % are using mp3 players (â€Å"2012 Most Addicting Gadgets†, www. The use of multimedia gadgets can be constructive and destructive to students (Despabiladeras 15). Many of them consider the use of these gadgets constructive when they help them in their studies. Today, the internet is the major source of knowledge and information. In just one click, they can now find the answers to their assignments. They also use software like Microsoft office and the like for their project presentation. Many schools now use computer oriented techniques for teaching. The traditional way of teaching like writing too many lessons in a manila paper is already replaced by powerpoint presentations which are indeed favorable for the students. They no longer copy too many notes because there are handouts already prepared for them. Multimedia also gives information about the latest happenings and discoveries around the world. The use of social media sites like Facebook allows them to socialize with other people. Some also say that playing online games like DOTA and Counte rstrike have positive effects on them because they relieve stress from the hectic schedule of their schooling. In contrary, students say that multimedia gadgets can be destructive too. Problems begin when students became addicted to these gadgets to the point of discarding other activities which can truly affect their balance and studies (www. Because of these gadgets, they now prefer playing games that reading books. In most schools, use of cellular phones is banned but many of the students still carry them. They push their parents to buy them the latest mobile phone or other gizmos because their peers use it. The effect of this addiction is that they can no longer resist themselves from taking calls and accessing Facebook and other social networking sites during school hours. â€Å"The use of gadgets can be destructive when it makes your personality bad like when you become wild because of video games†, Bryan Capus said ( Despabiladeras 15). They forgot to budget their time because most of their time are consumed by these gadgets. The overuse of these also affects their health. Too much exposure to these gadgets can cause diseases like brain tumor and cancer caused by radiation (â€Å" Radiation From Gadgets†, www. They are prone to sickness because they no longer engaged in outdoor activities. It is alarming to know that 47 % of students nowadays are addicted to computers and other multimedia gadgets ( Despabiladeras 16.). Their parents have a big role in overcoming their children’s addiction. For example, most of the students are advised or told by their parents to limit their internet surfing time until 8:30 p.m. or 9:00 p.m. or but not to reach 10:00 p.m. as they have classes the next day ( Clifford 72). Some also advice their children to engage in other recreational activities like playing basketball or playing the guitar instead of watching T.V. or sitting all day in front of their PCs. One parent posted the following on In today’s high- tech and modern world, we are all connected with each other through the miracle of working inventions and innovations like PC, tablets, smart phones, gaming, internet and so much more. And I think we feel that we won’t have a normal day without getting hooked to any one of these devices. The problem begins to rise when our children became addicted to these gadgets to the point of discarding other activities which can truly affect their balance and health. To avoid this, I try to ensure my son has balance in this area. Playing team sports has helped, that’s one thing in his like that doesn’t require gadget. Sports is one of the best ways to add moving activities to a child’s routine with the aim of creating a certain balance between studying and playing. We could not really avoid our children to get into gadgets as this is the wave of the future with the introduction of tablets which can he fully integrate with schools in the near fu ture ( According to, there are eight ways to overcome gadget addiction. First, limit the amount of time you spent on any type of gadget. Second, learn to balance and manage your time. Make a time table on when to use your gadget. Third, spend most of your time in your studies. This will give you higher grades in return. Fourth, read books rather than playing games. Surfing the internet for recent news and discoveries will help too. Fifth, spend your free time with your family and friends. Go to an outing of family reunion that doesn’t require gadgets. Sixth, socialize with your true friends, not your ‘virtual’ friends. Your Facebook friends will never help you if you have a problem. Seventh, avoid buying newly released gadgets if you still have one that is still working. And the last is self discipline. It is interesting to know the opinions of students on multimedia gadget addiction; whether it is constructive or destructive for them and what their parents do in influencing their media habits. To prevent this addiction, students should analyze their gadget preferences and see what’s good of bad in it for them. They must set in mind that multimedia gadgets is there to help them, not to enslave them.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Reasoning Fallacies Essay Example for Free

Reasoning Fallacies Essay A reasoning fallacy is an error in reasoning.   We all have our position on certain issues and at one point in time we have attempted to convince other persons to accept the same position.   Reasoning fallacy will be committed if there is an error in our own reasoning that led us to adopt the position or we used erroneous reasoning in trying to convince others to adopt our position. As a result, reasoning fallacy is a serious cause of concern.   It may be possible that we think in a particular manner and act in accordance with what we think not knowing that the reasoning we used in arriving at such thinking is erroneous.    Also, reasoning fallacy is troubling because a person who cannot spot reasoning fallacies in an argument will most likely be deceived by other persons who use these fallacies. Equivocation or equivocal language is the use of a single term or word to mean two different things.   One particular example is the statement: â€Å"For Kobe Bryant and Tim Duncan, basketball is their bread and butter.   Bread and butter are my favorite breakfast.  Ã‚   Therefore, for Kobe Bryant and Tim Duncan, basketball is their favorite breakfast.   In the statements mentioned, bread and butter are used in two different senses – as means to earn a living and as a meal. Non Sequitur is a fallacy that is committed when a person’s premises have no direct relationship to his conclusion.   This fallacy is most often committed by politicians, and multi-national companies to promote their product.   One example is the statements: â€Å"Oprah Winfrey is an intelligent, outspoken and strong-willed woman.   Most of her opinions are right. She also supports Barrack Obama’s presidential campaign.   Therefore Barrack Obama is the best choice for presidency.†Ã‚   Here, it is clear that Oprah’s opinions no matter how great she is, has no bearing on the issue of qualifications of Obama. Fallacy of Ignoring the Question or Red Herring is a fallacy committed by a person who does not properly respond to a question.   For example, if a person is asked whether he committed adultery, he says, â€Å"I am a religious person and I go to church everyday.† The fallacy of Begging the Question is a fallacy that attempts to prove a particular statement but the statement itself is assumed in the premises.   For example, â€Å"George W. Bush is the best president of the United States because nobody else is better.† One example of a reasoning fallacy can be found in the January 15, 2007 issue of the Time Magazine.   It was written by Jeffrey D. Sachs and the article is entitled â€Å"The $10 Solution: Malaria kills 2 million African children a year.†Ã‚   It can be found in the first paragraph of the article which states that: â€Å"Listen for a moment to the beautiful and dignified voices of Africa’s mothers.   Despite their burdens of poverty and hunger, they will tell you not of their endless toil but of their hopes for their children. But softy ever so softly, they will also recount the children they have lost, claimed by a sudden fever, children who died in their arms as they were carried in a desperate half-day’s journey by foot from the village to the nearest clinic.†Ã‚   Here, the author appeals to the emotion of his readers to arouse their sympathy and to encourage the readers to donate and contribute a portion of their money to organizations that provide assistance to the African people.   .   Bibliographies Sachs, Jeffrey D.   â€Å"The $10 Solution: Malaria kills 2 million African children a year.†Ã‚   Time. January 15, 2007.   Vol. 169 No. 1.

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Discussion of the Play Behind the Beautiful Forevers

Discussion of the Play Behind the Beautiful Forevers The play Behind the Beautiful Forevers is based on the book of the same title written by Katherine Boo. It was adapted into a play by David Hare. It focuses on the lives of two matriarchal families living in a slum- Annawadi, which is just next to the Mumbai airport. The slum is surrounded by luxury hotels on all sides, while it is full of trash that has kept on pilling and accumulating over the years. These families in the play largely represent the majority of the families in Mumbai. Families that have been let down by the systems that were put in place to be of assistance to them, the hatred of the poor towards one another and the resilience with which this families withstand all these and stick together throughout the difficulties (Hare 2). The Husain’s story shows how difficult it is to do good in an imperfect world where all systems are corrupt and the individuals are evil. One then wonders how the people at the bottom of the heap of trash can be honest in a world full o f bribes and corruption. The system should be where people run to when they have problems but that does not seem to be the case, the affluent are getting it all; the privileges given by the system because they are able to pay for the services offered, while the police don’t care about the poor people in the slums at all because most of them cannot afford to pay the bribe. Behind the Beautiful Forevers depicted Mumbai as a city of contrasts, where immense wealth and extreme poverty are rarely distant. It also shows how corruption in the public institutions and systems tends to undermine the community’s quality of life. The play reveals the obstacles to fairness and societal mobility in India. It also shows how young people in Annawadi remain hopeful through their personal philosophies especially in this time of global change. Abdul is the representation of a generation of young Indians struggling to elevate themselves out of poverty. The setting onstage truly depicted the lives of the characters, there was a motorcycle on stage and a tuk-tuk too which was a typical Indian medium of transport and it was even driven on stage. There was use of a strong noise of a plane landing, which brought out the closeness of the slum to the airport. The loud roar of the plane drowns the screams of Kalu as he’s being attacked and later murdered by two drug dealers, who thought that he had given the police information about them. This was a very dramatic scene with the noise at its loudest and the screams from Kalu together with the roaring of the plane set the tone of the play right from the start. As the play began, the shadow of a mighty passenger jet flew low over the Olivier stalls, the closeness of its very loud roar made the scalp tighten. Then, like a deluge of blessings, a cascade of used plastic bottles dropped from the skies. A pack of scavengers with their cardboard scoops went into a frenzied overdrive. This clearly depicts the huge gap between the affluent and the poor in Mumbai. The rich fly above the poor and leave them scrambling for their left over without a care of what is going on below them. David Hare while writing the play did not identify a single main character to pivot and plot the play around. This I believe was a calculated risk he decided to take as the play has various characters that we have to get a hold of and there are also many stories to tell, the play thus keeps rotating on each one of the character’s lives and the struggles they go through as individuals and also as a family unit, especially when the one legged Fatima due to her jealousy of the Husain’s relative prosperity, inflicts burn wound on herself and later accuses them of being responsible for her injuries. As with most stories that have a strong sense of place the play opened up to universal understanding. The play created tension between the perception of the situation and the energy of the place; this is because the sense of darkness was not because of the awful things that were happening to Husain’s family through the play or the poverty in Annawadi. The Husain family actually at this difficult time, depicted resilience in the face of the problems that later followed, after the one legged woman blamed their family for her injuries. Their integrity came under scrutiny the family fortune was wiped out by the grasping â€Å"justice† system as they struggle to clear their name and we see a corrupt system where one has to pay a lot of money to see their own charge sheet. We have a glimpse of the corrupt nature of the legal system and the essential injustices of a society in which the poor repeatedly blame equally poor individuals for their misfortunes. The Husain family however shows an extraordinary story of hope, despair and the unity in and strong ties in the family unit. The writer David Hare portrays the compromises the individuals in the play have to make in order to survive and have and get to the top of the heap with flashes of compassion and understanding, so that the audience actually relates to the cast. For instance: Asha having to sleep around in order for her daughter to get an education. The Husains having to pay the officer at the station just to see their charge sheet and due to the bribes they keep giving they lose all they worked so hard to build. They are back at the bottom where they started. The darkness is because of the one thing that both the poor have learned, though in different ways and contexts but nevertheless the same thing, that the road to happiness and success involves mistreating and trampling over other people. It is this dark thought that pollutes the mind and pollinates the minor and small sins done by individuals and leads them to escalate and the tragedy multiplies. The adults have been depicted as having learned the wrong lesson; this left the children as the sensible untainted individuals in Annawadi. The young people in the play representing the youth in India, were shown as being the future of the country. The future where there will be no corruption as they could not stand for it or condone it. As is today the young people do not believe in corruption, they stand against the vice and even hold demonstrations in the streets to protests against it. The young people can now hold the public institutions accountable for any misappropriation or abuse of office. Public offices still subtly favor a certain section of members in the society, because of their contribution to one or two of the organization’s projects, it however is not as rampant and if one is found out they could definitely be prosecuted. Thus the young people in the play represent the views of the young people in the world right now. This character in the young people was however often regarded to as an act of revolt throughout the play we saw, Abdul round up on an officer who was asking for money in order to abort his father’s trial, Manju who has hopes of being the first woman in Annawadi to gain a degree also rejects the means through which her mother employs to pay for her education. Meena, Sunil and Kehkashan are also not left behind as they are also shown as being perceptive with an unbending, understanding of something they couldn’t get themselves to voice. Abdul brings together an energy that was out of control in the slum area and gets rid of the darkness engulfing them. This might well have been the start of something or nothing really but at least it was the moment the play was more than a vicious cycle that one was unable to escape from. In as much as David Hare has done his best to get the most important themes from the book and release the play as the book is, there are a few things that we still miss from the book. For instance the play does not show Asha’s involvement in the local politics which was always the driving force behind her ambitiousness; to get to the money and power that runs the Annawadi. The play however managed to bring the described image of the Mumbai slum close to the audience and he did this in a major way through the set up on stage and by focusing on the continuous and endless toil of the characters and the recreation of grim physical context in detail. From the play we also gained the sense of getting to see a living community and the young people in resistance of the corruption that was being accepted by the adults. Behind the Beautiful Forevers was an exciting production as the adaptation managed to preserve the humanity and intimacy of the book. References Hare, D. (2014). Behind the Beautiful Forevers. Faber Faber, Limited.

Monday, August 19, 2019

Womens Literacy During the Middle Ages :: European History

During the Middle Ages, women were considered to be inferior to men and were not formally educated. It was common for women to be unable to read and write in their own language. Even though some were fortunate enough to be taught how to read, some were still unable to write. Women were not usually taught how to read Latin, the language of male scholars and people of the Church, who also happened to be male. In the later Middle Ages, even most nuns were not able to learn Latin. Partially literate women became increasingly common in the later Middle Ages; but very few women were given the opportunity to learn to read and write. One of the most famous women readers , the Virgin Mary was often portrayed in medieval paintings and illuminations depicting the Annunciation, for example. Illustrations would show Mary before or beside an open Bible, implying that she was able to read. Pictures of the Annunciation were common, and people would most likely come across pictures of Mary reading in their Bibles or payer books. Mary was not the only woman to be portrayed with an open book beside her. For example, a painting by Jean Bourdichon shows Anne of Brittany kneeling before an open book. Another painting by Robert Campin and his assistants shows a woman reading in a painting of the Madonna and child with saints. In the schools of the Middle Ages, reading and writing were taught separately Some aristocratic women were taught to read but might not be able to write themselves. Some of the most famous women during the Middle Ages were able to read. One of the greatest queens ever to rule England was Eleanor of Aquitaine who could read but not write. She compensated for that by have people called scribes to write for her. During her reigns as the Queen of England and France, Eleanor was very concerned about the literacy of people living in Aquitaine . The famous poet Marie de France may have performed or presented her stories to the court of Eleanor and her second husband, Henry II. Marie wrote fables and lais for a living, and her stories became so popular during the Middle Ages that her works entertained both the French and English courts and were translated into many different languages. Throughout the Middle Ages, nuns were taught to read portions of the Bible, and many of them were able to write as well.

freeclo Comapring Free Will in A Clockwork Orange and Freedom and the

Free Will in A Clockwork Orange and Skinner's Freedom and the Control of Man      Ã‚   Socrates once said, "Know thyself," and over two thousand years later we're still perplexed with the complexities of human behavior. The concept of free will has been debated and challenged by science, religion, and philosophy throughout history. By free will, I mean our ability to choose and behave as we wish, without our choices being determined by outside sources. Such a notion has been discussed and disputed by philosophers like B.F. Skinner, Robert Kane, William Lycan, and Richard Hanley in very different ways.    In order to better understand the arguments of Skinner and Kane, we must first understand the concept of determinism. Determinism is the idea that all events are caused, occurring only as effects of causes before them. For example, the event of my bringing an umbrella to work was caused, or determined, by a rainstorm or perhaps by the day's weather forecast predicting rain. Whatever the reason, determinism follows that a later event is inevitable due to its earlier cause. If true, determinism holds that the future is fixed and unchangeable, in much the same way the past is unchangeable in time travel. If true, determinism leaves only one possible effect for each subsequent event. Influencing the ideas of determinism is the religious conception of predestination. Here the idea is that God has determined beforehand who will go to heaven and hell and nothing can be done to change the fixed and determined outcome. Predestination has been criticized by some because it seems to lead to fat alism. If our destinies are already decided, we seem to lack the free will to control our future. But believers in predestination believe tha... it or we don't, whether it's determined or not, the notion of free will can help us better understand why we behave as we do. Perhaps someday, with our understanding of free will, we'll be able to do what Socrates recommended long ago.    Works Cited Burgess, Anthony. A Clockwork Orange. New York, NY: W W Norton & Company. 1986. Kane, Robert. Selections from The Significance of Free Will. Lycan, William. Consciousness. Hanley, Richard. The Metaphysics of Star Trek. Chapter 3 "Pro Creation" [Abridged] Persons Handout. X100/220. Philosophy, Science, and Science Fiction. The Concept of a Person. Skinner, B.F. "Freedom and the Control of Man."   

Sunday, August 18, 2019

Media Manipulation Essay -- essays research papers

The media and advertising hinder do indeed hinder our being fully human. Mass media including radio, television and newspapers endeavors to shape public opinion on a variety of things. The media attempts to manipulate those values instilled by parents and society in general, thus taking away from our being human. Messages designed to influence peoples’ attitudes, desires and decisions fall upon society urging those people to buy a certain product, vote for a certain political figure, or support a â€Å"worthy† cause. The daily attack of media and advertising persuade the public to be one and the same, rather than allowing them to function as humans who follow their own beliefs.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Public opinion is formed through media propaganda. The network of communication systems – radio, magazines, newspaper, television, and films – informs those exposed as to their roles in society and their culture. Advertising has but one purpose: to sell a product or service or to promote a political figure by any and all means necessary including brainwashing the general public. Companies try to make the consumer aware of its product and convince the world that its product is better than that of the competitor as seen with the war between McDonalds and Burger King restaurants. This misuse of triggering the subconscious minds induces the public to buy things without knowing they have been deceived.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Parents have the heaviest influence in shaping on...

Saturday, August 17, 2019

World History to 1500

Hominid- this is any creature of the family Hominidae or Primates and only one species exists today, Homo sapiens or human beings. The family most closely related to the family today is Pongidae or the anthropoid apes that include the gorilla, the chimpanzee, and the orangutan. Believing that they all came from a common ancestral line during the Late Miocene epoch period and the characteristics that distinguish hominids from the pongids are the erect posture, bipedal locomotion, rounded skulls with larger brains, small teeth and behavioral characteristics such as communication through language. The oldest known hominid genus is Australopithecus. This type was two legged and had an opposable thumb and there was evidence that they were capable of primitive tool making. The most significant physiological differences between the hominids and the pongids are how they adapted differently for different environment and the most was anatomically. Hominids had changes in the pelvis, femur and food; whereas the pongids developed physically for swinging by the arms, such as in trees. Paleolithic Era- This period is also known as the Stone Age. This is a period when humans began using rudimentary chipped stone tools. It has been divided into two levels the lower and the upper periods. At sites dating from the Lower Paleolithic Period, approx. 2. 5 million to 200,000 years ago simple pebble tools have been found in relationship with the remains of what may have been the earliest human ancestors. Around 700,000 years ago the hand ax appeared. The arrival of the Upper Paleolithic Period, which came about 40,000 years ago, brought about the regional stone tool industry. These industries are characterized by the greater complexity, specialization, and variety of tools types by the coming of a distinctive regional artistic tradition. The two forms of art known to the modern world are small sculptures and monumental paintings, incised designs and drawings on the walls of caves. Most of the cave drawings that survived in quantity are in Eastern Europe and parts of Spain and France. Neolithic Era- Also known as the New Stone Age and is known for the stone tools shaped by polishing or grinding. It dates back to the last 10,000 years of earth history. This period is known for the environmental or climatic changes the earth went through to become the earth we know today. During this period is when men became herdsmen and cultivators and the beginning to change or modify their environment. Social structure became more complex in response to problems and ways of dealing with situations. Animal domestication as well as agriculture was very important features to this era. Humans lived in more stable, more or less permanent, villages and were able to support complex social structures and organizations. Agriculture and animal husbandry developed independently in several regions of the Old and New Worlds through the natural process of evolution.Ap World History Units 1-3 Study Guide Three Craft Industries- This has to do with the final stages of cultural and technological development in prehistoric times. Stone tools are shaped by polishing or grinding and the society is dependent on domesticated plants and animals. It is also characterized by permanent villages with pottery and weaving beginning to show up. Chapter Two: Mesopotamia- Known as the land between the Tigris and Euphrates in western Asia, it is better known as one of the cradles of human civilization. There is evidence of an early settlement dating roughly to about 10,000 B. C. It is evident that this society began as rootless hunter-gatherers to a culture based on husbandry, agriculture and permanent settlements. Trade with other regions also was abundant because of the metals and precious stones in burial sites that are not known to the region. Irrigation techniques, pottery and other crafts, and building methods based on clay bricks were developed to a new level and elaborate religious cults evolv ed. Two very important features developed out of this era and they are the birth of the city and the invention of writing. Hammurabi’s Code- The most complete collection of Babylonian laws written during the reign of Hammurabi during the 1st dynasty of Babylon. It was his legal decisions that were collected at the end of his reign and written on a stele. There are 282 laws that deal with economic provisions, family law, criminal law and civil law. The existing text is written in Semitic and was discovered at Susa in 1901 by Jean-Vincent Scheil. The code was advanced far beyond tribal customs and did not recognize blood feud, private retribution or marriage by capture. Epic of Gilgamesh- Tales told of a Mesopotamian hero, a king. It is said to be the odyssey of a king who did not want to die. The stories and poems were written about Gilgamesh who ruled at Uruk in southern Mesopotamia sometime during the first half of the 3rd millennium B. C. There are no historical evidence for the exploits given in the poems and epics. The Ninevite version of the epic begins with a prologue in praise of Gilgamesh, part divine and part human, the great builder and warrior, knower of all things on land and sea. In order to curb Gilgamesh’s seemingly harsh rule, the god Anu caused the creation of Enkidu, a wild man who at first lived among the animals. Enkidu was then brought into the ways of city life and traveled to Uruk, where Gilgamesh waited for him. It was this man and Gilgamesh who went on to live in the tales known as the Epic of Gilgamesh. Sumer- Is the site of the earliest known civilization and is located in the southernmost part of Mesopotamia between the Tigris and the Euphrates rivers (Southern Iraq). It later became known as Babylonia. It is believed to first be settled between 4500 and 4000 B. S. by a non-Semitic people who did not speak the Sumerian language. The inhabitants are known as Ubaidians and were the first civilizing force in Sumer, draining the marshes for agriculture, developing trade, and establishing industries that included weaving, leatherwork, metalwork, masonry and pottery. After the Ubaidian immigration to Mesopotamia, various Semitic peoples infiltrated their territory, adding their cultures to the Ubaidian culture and creating a high pre-Sumerian civilization. Assyrian Empire- It was an empire of the northern Mesopotamia that became the focal point of one of the great empires of the ancient Middle East. It was located in what is now known as northern Iraq around Mosul. Assyria was a dependency of Babylonia and later of the Mitanni during most of the 2nd millennium BC. But it emerged as an independent state in the 14th century B. C. The state was finally destroyed by a Chaldean-Median coalition in 612-609 BC. The people were famous for their cruelty and fighting. They were also known for their monumental builders with their craft that can be seen in archaeological sites at Nineveh, Ashur, Nimrud, and Khorsabad. Hebrews- While the Assyrians and the Persians struggled for empire, the Hebrews or ancient Jews, evolved spiritual concepts that still permeate Western society. Although the Hebrew were politically and culturally unimportant, a people who produced neither art nor science, their chief literary product, the Old Testament, was fundamentally influencing to both Christianity and Islam and still is a compelling force on the modern world. Chaldean Empire- was located in southern Babylonia or modern southern Iraq. Chaldea is first mentioned in the books of the Assyrian king Ashurnasirpal II who reigned 883 to 859 BC and though earlier documents referred to the same area as the Sealand. In 850 Shalmaneser III of Assyria raided Chaldea and reached the Persian Gulf, which he called the Sea of Kaldu. On the accession of Sargon II to the Assyrian throne, the Chaldean Marduk-apla-iddina II ruler of Bit-Yakin seized the Babylonian throne and despite Assyrian opposition, held it from 721-710. He finally fled and Bit-Yakin was placed under Assyrian control. With this decline of Assyrian power, a native governor, Naborpolassar, was able in 625 to become king of Babylon by popular consent and to inaugurate a Chaldean dynasty that lasted until the Persian invasion of 539 BC. The prestige of his successors, Nebuchadrezzar II and Nabonidus was so that Chaldean became synonymous with Babylonian. Phoenicians- They were merchants that occupied the region known today as Lebanon with adjoining parts of modern Syria and Israel. It is believed that the Phoenicians probably arrived in the area about 3000 BC. Beginning in the 9th century the independence of Phoenicia was threatened by the advance of Assyria and in 538 the rule was passed on to the Persians. This country was later taken by Alexander the Great and in 64 BC was merged into the Roman province of Syria. They were known as sea-traders and colonizers. By the 2nd millennium they had influence that stretched along the coast of the Levant. Phoenician exports included cedar and pine wood, fine linen from Tyure, Byblos, and Berytos, cloths dyed with the famous Tyrian purple, embroideries from Sidon, wine, metalwork, and glass. Their transit trade was vital to the era. In the artistic products of Phoenicia, Egyptian motifs and ideas were mingled with those of Mesopotamia, the Aegean, and Syria. Ivory and wood carvings became their specialty and their goldsmiths and metalsmiths work is also well known. They used cuneiform writing but also came up with their own script which the Greeks later adopted. Their religious beliefs were nature based. Sargon of Akkad- Was an ancient Mesopotamian ruler that reigned 2334-2279 BC and is one of the earliest of the world’s great empire builders, conquering all of southern Mesopotamia as well as parts of Syria, Anatolia and Elam. He established the region’s first Semitic dynasty and was considered the founder of the Mesopotamian military traditions. Sargon was a self made man of humble beginnings, a gardener. He was found as a baby floating in a basket on the river. His father and name were unknown and his mother was thought to be a priestess. The event that gave him power was the defeat of Lugalzaggisi of Uruk. Because Lugalzaggisi had already united the city-states of Sumer by defeating each in turn, Sargon became king over all of southern Mesopotamia. Indo-European migration- While Egyptian civilization flourished behind the back drop of sand and sea, huge changes were taking place in the ancient Near East, changes that would leave their mark on Egypt. These changes involved enormous and remarkable movements of peoples, especial peoples speaking Semitic and Indo-European languages. The original home of the Semites was probably the Arabian Peninsula. Some tribes moved into northern Mesopotamia, others into Syria and Palestine and still others into Egypt. Although two great waves began around 2000 and 1200 BC, these migrations were usually sporadic and extended over long periods of time. Babylonian Empire- Although the empire of Sargon was extensive, it was also short lived, and it was the Babylonians who united Mesopotamia politically and culturally. The Babylonians were Amorites, a Semitic people who migrated from Arabia and settled in the Sumerian city of Babylon. Babylon enjoyed an excellent geographical position and was ideally suited to be the capital of Mesopotamia. It dominated trade on the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, so that all commerce coming from Sumer and Akkad had to pass by its walls. It also looked beyond Mesopotamia. By following the Tigris, Babylonian merchants traveled north to Assyria and Anatolia. The Euphrates led the merchants to Syria, Palestine, and the Mediterranean. The city grew great because of its commercial importance and because its power was soundly based. Hittites- For the civilization of the ancient Near East the most important of these migrations were those of the Hittites and two unrelated groups, the Hurrians and Kassites. Neither the Hurrians nor the Kassites were Indo-European names. Indo-European or not, all three peoples were barbarians by Near Eastern standards, and their arrivals were marked by destruction. Around 1595 BC, the Kassites brought down the Babylonian kingdom and established their own rule there, while the Hurrians created the kingdom of Mitanni in the upper reaches of the Euphrates and Tigris. The Hittites settled in central Anatolia and soon spread their influence south to Syria. The Hittites adopted the cuneiform script for their own language. Hittite kings published law codes, just as Hammurabi had done. Their art has Mesopotamian borrowing to create something of their own. Chapter Three: Kingdom of Kushan- Was a ruling line of descent from the Yueh-chih, a people that ruled over most of the northern Indian subcontinent, Afghanistan and parts of Central Asia during the first three centuries of the Christian Era. The Yueh-chih conquered Bactria in the 2nd century BC and divided the country into five chiefdoms, one of which was that of the Hushan’s. A hundred years later, the Kushan Chief Kujula Kadphises secured the political unification of the Yueh-chih kingdom under himself. Art produced during the Hushan dynasty from about the late 1st to the 3rd century AD in an area that now includes parts of Central Asia, northern India, Pakistan and Afghanistan. The Kushans fostered a mixed culture that is best illustrated by the variety of deities invoked on their coins. At least two major stylistic divisions can be made among artifacts of the period; imperial art of Iranian derivation and Buddhist art of mixed Greco-Roman and Indian sources. Kushan artwork is stiff, hieratic and frontal, emphasizing the power and wealth of the individual. Hyksos- Shortly after 1800 BC, people whom the Egyptians called Hyksos, which means Rulers of the Uplands, began to settle in the Nile Delta. Although the Egyptians portrayed the Hyksos as a conquering horde, they were probably no more nomads looking for good land. Their entry into the delta was probably gradual, and generally peaceful. The Hyksos invasion was one of the fertilizing periods of Egyptian history and introduced new ideas and techniques into Egyptian life. They brought with them the method of making bronze and casting it into tools and weapons and brought Egypt fully into the Bronze Age culture. This culture made the production and use of bronze implements basic to society. Bronze tools made farming more efficient than ever before and used bronze armor and weapons as well as horse drawn chariots. They created the composite bow which was made of laminated wood and horn. It was far more powerful than the simple wooden bow and revolutionized Egyptian warfare. Akhenaten- Was a pharaoh between 1367-1350 BC whose thoughts dwelt on religion rather than conquest. Nefertiti, his wife and queen, encouraged his religious fever. They were monotheists who believed that the sun god Aton, whom they worshipped, was universal, the only god. All other Egyptian gods and goddesses were frauds and the royal pair forbade their worship. The religious notions and the actions of Akhenaten and Nefertiti were in direct opposition to traditional Egyptian beliefs. Akhenaton’s attack on the old gods affected all Egyptians, for the old gods were fundamentally important to the afterlife of human beings. Akhenaton’s monotheism was imposed from above and it failed to find a place among the people. One of the major reasons for Akhenaton’s failure is that his god had no connection with the past of the Egyptian people, who trusted the old gods and felt comfortable in praying to them so when Akhenaten died his religion died with him. Bantu migration- It is generally agreed that some one-third of the continent today occupied by the Bantu-speaking peoples was until approximately 2000 years ago, the dominion of other groups mainly Pygmies and Bushmen and the causes and itinerary of the subsequent Bantu migration have attracted the attention of several anthropologists. It is speculated that the expansion of the Bantu was associated with their acquisition of certain Malaysian food crops such as banana, taro and yams, which spread westward across the continent at about the time that the migration is thought to have begun. These crops enabled them to penetrate the tropical rain forest of equatorial Africa and spread across the southern part of the continent. A more widely held view is that the migratory route lay eastward, across the southern Sudan and then south, past the great lakes of the northeast. Chapter Four: Varna-jati system- Is the Hindu Cast system. In Hinduism’s sacred Sanskrit texts rank all people into one of four categories called varnas, which are associated with certain occupations. Most people accept the varna categories as fundamentally essential elements of their society. All of Hindu India is hierarchically ranked according to these four basic castes. In actual practice each of the four categories is further subdivided and stratified. To add to the complexity of the Indian caste system, the order in which these sub-castes are ranked varies from one region to another. These local sub groups, known as jati, are local family groups that are strictly endogamous. All members of a jati, who share a common social status, are expected to behave in ways appropriate for that jati. A person’s jati commands his or her strongest loyalties, serves as a source of social support and provides the primary basis for personal identity. So the jati serves as the important social entity in traditional Hindu society. Aryans- they were a people who, in prehistoric times, settled in Iran and northern India. From their language the Indo-European languages of South Asia are descended. The Nordic or Germanic peoples came to be regarded as the purest Aryans. Harappan society- Also known as Indus Valley Civilization and is the earliest known urban culture of the Indian subcontinent. The civilization is known to have comprised two large cities. Harappa and Mohenjo-daro, and more than 100 towns and villages, were each more than 3 mile in area and their outstanding magnitude suggest political centralization a practice for which there are analogies in Indian history. The Indus civilization apparently evolved from the villages of neighbors or predecessors using the Mesopotamian model of irrigated agriculture with sufficient skill to reap the advantages of the spacious and fertile Indus River. The best known artifacts of the Indus civilization are the number of seals, generally made of steatite. Significant contrasts between the Indus and the Mesopotamian cultures extend to the tool types of the two regions. Beads found in Mohenjo-daro give evidence of a clear link to Mesopotamia, Crete and Egypt. Hinduism- The beliefs, practices and socio-religious institutions of the people known as Hindu. They are principally the peoples of India and parts of Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal and Sikkim. The belief evolved from Vedism, the religion of the ancient Indo-European peoples who settled in India during the 2nd millennium BC. Hinduism constitutes a complex but largely continuous whole; and because it covers the whole of life, it has religious, social, economic, literary and artistic aspects. They consider their ancient texts sacred and collectively they are known as the Vedas. Chapter Five: Xia Dynasty- Early Chinese dynasty in 1766 BC mentioned in legends but not much else and is also known as Hsia Dynasty. According to legend the founder was Yu, who was credited with having engineered the draining of the waters of a great flood and was later, identified as a deified lord of the harvest. He made rulership hereditary in his family and was the first Imperial dynasty in China. Shang Dynasty- Also known as the Yin Dynasty and was the successor to the legendary first or Xia/Hsia Dynasty. The period of the dynasty’s rule has traditionally been dated 1766-1122 BC. Shang China was centered in the North China Plain and extended as far north as modern Shantung Province and westward through present Honan Province. The king appointed local governors and there was an established class of nobles as well as the masses whose chief labor was in agricultural. Jade carving became advanced during the Shang Dynasty. Ceremonial weapons of jade were made as well as jade fittings for actual weapons. Zhou Dynasty- Also known as the Chou Dynasty and ruled ancient China for almost a millennium creating the distinctive political and cultural characteristics that were to be identified with China for the next 2,000 years. The Chou co-existed with the Shang for many years until one of the Zhou family members made a plan to conquer the Shang in about 1111, which took several years to win. During this dynasty China changed from one of the more backward areas of the civilized world to one of the most advanced. Iron, ox-drawn plows, crossbows and horseback riding were all introduced. Large scale irrigation and water control projects were also instituted for the first time greatly increasing the crop yield of the North China Plain. This is also known for the time of Confucianism, Taoism and legalism. Chapter Six: Olmec- The first elaborate pre-Columbian culture of Meso-America. It’s most important centre was in what is now the southern Vera Cruz and Tabasco region of the Mexican Gulf Coast. The first evidence of the remarkable Olmec art style appears about 1150 BC. Between 1100 and 800 BC this Olmec stylish art influenced the Valley of Mexico to the Republic of San Salvador. These influences were the symbols of political empires, of a trading network, or of a religious cult. The ancient Olmec society was complex and non-egalitarian. Olmec stylistic influence disappeared after about 800 BC. Teotihuacan- Also known as The City of the Gods and is the most important and largest city of pre-Columbian central Mexico. The earliest inhabitants of the region of what was to become the city at about 400 BC and its formal planning as a metropolis dates to about the beginning of the Christian Era. Their culture and cultural influences spread throughout Meso-America. About 650 or 900 BC Teotihuacan was sacked and burned by the invading Toltec. The area of the city encompassed eight square miles and in addition to dwellings places, great plazas and temples also had palaces of nobles and priests. Maya- Meso-American Indians that occupy southern Mexico, Guatemala and northern Belize. Before the Spanish conquest of Mexico and Central America, the Maya possessed one of the greatest civilizations of the Western Hemisphere. They practiced agriculture, built great stone buildings and pyramid temples, worked gold and copper, and used a form of hieroglyphic writing, that have been deciphered. As early as 1500 BC the Maya had settled in villages and had developed a primitive agriculture based on the cultivation of corn, beans and squash. The rise of the Maya to greatness began about 250 AD and what is known as the Classic period. At the height of the civilization there were more than 40 cities with each having a population from 5,000 to 50,000. Chapter Seven: Cyrus the Great- Was a conqueror between 590-580 BC who founded the Achaemenid Empire that was centered on Persia and made up the Near East from the Aegean Sea to the Indus River. He is also known as a tolerant and ideal monarch who was called father of his people by the ancient Persians and in the Bible as the liberator of the Jews held captive in Babylonia. His persona in history has him being more than a great man who founded an empire, instead he was known for his great qualities that are expected of a ruler. He was not only a great conqueror and administrator; he had a place in the minds of the Persian people similar to that of Romulus and Remus in Rome or Moses for the Israelites. He is most known for freeing the Jewish captives in Babylonia and allowing them to return to their homeland. Sasanids- An ancient Iranian dynasty evolved by Ardashir I between the years of conquest AD 208 and 224 and was destroyed by the Arabs during the years 637 and 651. Zoroastrianism became the state religion under Sasanian rule and the government became centralized with provincial officials directly responsible to the throne and roads, city buildings and even agriculture were financed by the government. Under the Sasanians Iranian art experienced a general renaissance. Seleucids- An empire that at its greatest stretched from Thrace in Europe to the border of India. It was created out of the remains of Alexander the Great’s Macedonian Empires by its founder, Seleucus I Nicator. Seleucus was one of Alexander’s leading generals and became governor of Babylonia in 321, two years after the death of Alexander. The Seleucid Kingdom was a major center of Hellenistic culture, which maintained the presence of Greek customs and manners over the indigenous cultures of the Middle East. The kingdom began losing control over large territories in the 3rd century BC. Zoroastrianism- It is the ancient pre-Islamic religion of Iran that survives still today in isolated areas and more prosperously in India where the descendents of Zoroastrian Iranian immigrants are known as Parsis or Parsees. Founded by the Iranian prophet and reformer Zoroaster in the 6th century BC, this religion contains both monotheistic and dualistic features and influenced other major Western religions such as Judaism, Christianity and Islam. Chapter Eight: Confucianism- A way of life that was created by Confucius in the 6th and 5th century BC and has been followed by the Chinese people for over 2 thousand years. It has been the substance of learning, the source of their values and their social codes. It has been viewed as philosophy and a religion. It affects the daily life and culture of the Taoists, Buddhists and Christians in China before the Communist regime. Legalism- School of Chinese philosophy that was created around 475-221 BC by the philosopher Han Fey Tzu and was the basis for the first Chinese dynasty. They believe that political institution should be modeled in response to the realities of human behavior and that men are inherently selfish and short sighted. But that social harmony could not be assured through the recognition by the people of the virtue of their ruler, but only through strong state control and absolute obedience to authority. They want government to prescribe punishments and rewards for specific behaviors and increase the power of the ruler. Daoism- Also known as Taoism it is the Chinese Philosophy and its fundamental concept believes that it is the â€Å"Correct Way† or â€Å"Heaven’s way†. In the Confucian tradition, Tao signifies a morally correct path of human conduct and is limited to behavior. The concept takes on a metaphysical sense transcending the human realm. The absolute Tao defies verbal definition, but language can make suggestions that may lead to an intuitive or mystical understanding of this fundamental reality. It began sometime between the 8th and 3rd centuries. Taoists view life and death as simply different stages or manifestations of the Absolute Tao and consequently advocate a life in accord with nature. The serenity of such a life stands in sharp contrast to the life of public service advocated by Confucius. Qin Dynasty- Also the Ch’in Dynasty 221-226 BC and was the first great Chinese empire and also where the name China came from. This dynasty established the boundaries and basic administrative system that all subsequent Chinese dynasties were to follow for the next 2,000 years. The Ch’in Dynasty left two architectural monuments of massive proportions, one the Great Wall of China, which actually connected sections of a number of existing short walls, and the other a great palace for the first emperor. Its most important artistic contribution may have been the simplification and standardization of the emerging Chinese language. Han Dynasty- The second great Chinese Imperial dynasty and was considered the model for all other later Chinese Dynasties. Han Dynasty created what is now considered Chinese culture of today. The dynasty was founded by Liu Pang, later Kao Tsu 256-195 BC. The Han copied the highly centralized Ch’in/Qin Dynasty’s administrative structure, and divided up the country into a series of administrative areas ruled by centrally appointed officials and developed a salaried bureaucracy in which promotion was based on merit. Han also adopted a Confucian ideology and emphasized moderation and virtue. It was so successful that this dynasty lasted longer than any other. The first major stone tomb sculpture in China was created in the Han period and lifelike clay figurines of people and animals also were created. The Shang dynasty discovered lacquer, but it was the Han that brought its lacquer work to such perfection that some of its lacquered wine cups in perfect condition have been excavated from water filled graves. Chapter Nine: Jainism- It is a religion and philosophy of India founded in about the 6th century by Vardhamana, it is centered on protest against the orthodox Vedic, or early Hindu, ritualistic cult, its earliest sect rebelled against the idea of the practice of taking life that was prevalent in the Vedic animal sacrifice. It does not believe in the creator god and its central core is no injury come to any living thing. And man can become perfect through a monastic and ascetic life. Mauryan Empire- The Mauryan Empire was in ancient India around 321-185 BC and was an efficient and highly organized autocracy with a standing army and civil service. This bureaucracy and its operations was the model for the Artha-sastra (â€Å"Treatise on the Aims of Life† work of political economy that is similar to the tone and scope of Machiavelli’s â€Å"The Prince†). Gupta Empire- Were rulers of the Magadha state in northeastern India, later Bihar. They maintained an empire over northern and parts of central western India from the early 4th to the late 6th century AD. The Gupta era produced the decimal system of notation and great Sanskrit epics and Hindu art and contributed to the science of astronomy, mathematics and metallurgy. Ashoka- He was the last major emperor in the Mauryan dynasty of India and a Buddhist follower, his reign was from 273-232 BC and his faith furthered the expansion of that religion throughout India. After a bloody conquest of the Kalinga country on the east coast he renounced armed conquest and adopted a policy he called â€Å"conquest by dharma†. To spread the word of dharma he made them known orally through announcements and engraved them on rocks and pillars. He went to the rural areas to preach his teachings. The only glory he wanted was to lead his people along the path of dharma and he build hospitals for men and animals, but his strongest points were to the services to Buddhism. Buddhism- A religion and philosophy founded by Siddhartha Gautama in northeast India in the 5th century BC. It spread from India to central and Southeast Asia, China, Korea, and Japan. Buddhism has played an influential role in the spiritual, cultural, and social life of much of the Eastern world. The Buddha or the â€Å"Enlightened one† died in northeastern India between 500 and 350 BC. He was born into royalty but was shocked by the inevitability of sickness, old age and death; he renounced his family life in order to wonder as an ascetic in search of religious understanding and a way of release from the human condition. He instructed his followers in the dharma and a path between a worldly life and extremes of self denial. Four Nobel Truths- The essence of Buddha’s early preaching was said to be the Four Nobel Truths: 1. life is fundamentally disappointment and suffering; 2. suffering is a result of one’s desires for pleasure, power and continued existence; 3. o stop disappointment and suffering one must stop desiring; and 4. the way to stop desiring and thus suffering is the Noble Eight-Fold Path, right views, right intention, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right awareness and right concentration. Chapter Ten: Minoan Society- This was known as the Bronze Age civilization of Crete that flourished from 3000 to 1100 BC. Its name comes from Minos either a dynastic title or the name of a particular ruler of Crete who has a place in Greek legend. Minoan pottery has been found throughout the eastern Mediterranean. One of the most familiar features of Minoan civilization is the bull symbol known through the Greek legend of Minotaur and depicted in the brightly colored frescoes on the palace walls at Knossos. Cyclades, the islands around the island of Delos in the Aegean Sea, is similar to that of Minoan Crete, which according to Greek tradition, exercised hegemony over them. Mycenaean Society- The Mycenaean’s entered Greece around 2000 BC and settled in central Greece and in the Peloponnesus, the peninsula that forms the southernmost part of Greece. Mycenaean civilization was utterly unlike anything the later Greeks evolved. The political unit of the Mycenaean was the kingdom, not the polis. The king and his warrior aristocracy stood at the top of society. The symbol of the king’s power and wealth was the palace, which was also the economic center of the kingdom. Within its walls royal craftsmen fashioned jewelry and rich ornaments, made and decorated fine pottery, forged weapons, prepared hides and wool for clothing and manufactured the goods needed by the king and his retainers. The Mycenaean kingdoms were in touch with each other and with the Bronze Age culture of the Minoans in Create, but these contacts were usually violent. They were a consistently warlike and restless people. Peloponnesian War- This war lasted a generation from 431-404 BC brought in its wake fearful plagues, famine, civil wars, widespread destruction and huge loss of life. As the war dragged on old leaders like Pericles died and were replaced by men of the war generation. In Athens the most prominent of this new breed of politicians was Alcibiades, a aristocrat, a kinsman of Pericles, and a student of the Philosopher Socrates. Alcibiades was brilliant handsome, and charming, all of which made him popular with the people. He was also self-seeking and egotistical; a shameless opportunist, his first thoughts were always for himself. One positive development that grew out of the Persian and Peloponnesian wars was the beginning of historical writing. The father of history, Herodotus was born at Halicarnassus in Asia Minor and as a young man traveled widely. He migrated to Athens which became his intellectual home and participated in the colonization of Thurii in southern Italy where he died. Alexander the Great- The figure of Alexander loomed over the Hellenistic period and still cast its shadows today. Some scholars have seen him as a high minded philosopher; his bloody and savage campaigns in the East seem the work of a ruthless and callous conqueror. Yet for the Hellenistic period and for Western civilization in general what Alexander intended was less important than what he actually did. Alexander was instrumental in changing the face of politics in the eastern Mediterranean. His campaign swept away the Persian Empire, which had ruled the East for over two hundred years. In its place he established a Macedonian monarchy. More important in the long run was his foundation of cities and military colonies. The result of his campaign was to open the East to the coming of Hellenism. Antigonid Empire- This was the ruling house of ancient Macedonia from 306-168 BC. Antigonus Gonatas became king of Macedonia and established the Antigonid dynasty, which ruled until the Roman conquest in 168 BC. His resilience and hard work gave to Macedonia a sound and durable government. Ptolemaic Empire- The Ptolemies in Egypt made no effort to spread Greek culture and unlike other Hellenistic kings they were not city builders, they founded only the city of Ptolemais near Thebes. At first the native Egyptian population, the descendants of the pharaoh’s people, retained their traditional language, outlook, religion, and way of life. Initially untouched by Hellenism, the natives continued to be the foundation of the state: they fed it by their labor in the fields, and they financed its operations by their taxes. Under the pharaohs, talented Egyptians had been able to rise to high office, but during the third century BC the Ptolemies cut off this avenue of advancement. Ever more tightly they tied the natives to the land and made it nearly impossible for them to leave their villages. The bureaucracy of the Ptolemies was so ruthlessly efficient that the native population was viciously and cruelly exploited. Even in times of hardship the king’s taxes came first despite the fact that payment might mean starvation for the natives. To many Egyptians revolt or a life of brigandage was far better than working the land under the Ptolemies. Chapter Eleven: Etruscans- The Etruscans were skillful metal workers, and they amassed extensive wealth by trading their manufactured goods in Italy and beyond. The strength of their political and military institutions enabled them to loosely organize league of cities whose dominion extended as far north as the Po valley and as far south as Latium and Campania. In Latium they founded cities and they took over control of Rome. Like the Greeks, the Etruscans promoted urban life, and one of the places that benefited from Etruscan influence was Rome. The Etruscans found the Romans settled on three of Rome’s seven hills. The site of the future Forum Roamanum, the famous Public Square and center of political life was originally the cemetery of the small community. Etruscan power and influence at Rome were so strong and important that Roman traditions preserved the memory of Etruscan kings who ruled the city. Under the Etruscans, Rome enjoyed contacts with the larger Mediterranean world, and the city began to grow. In the years 575 -550 BC, temples and public buildings began to grace the city. The Capitoline Hill became the religious center of the city when the temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus was built there. The forum ceased to be a cemetery and started its history as a public meeting place. Metalwork became common and the wealthier classes began to import large numbers of fine Greek vases. The Etruscans had found Rome a collection of villages and had made of it a city. Punic Wars- Also called the First Carthaginian War it was the first of three wars between the Roman Republic and the Carthaginian or Punic Empire that resulted in the destruction of Carthage. The first Punic was fought to establish control over the strategic islands of Corsica and Sicily. In 264 the Carthaginians intervened in a dispute between the two principal cities on the Sicilian west coast of Messana and Syracuse, and to establish a presence on the island. Rome responding to this challenge attacked Messana and forced the Carthaginians to withdraw. In 260 a Roman fleet failed to gain complete control of Sicily but opened the way to Corsica, from which the Carthaginians were expelled. A second Roman fleet ailed in 256 and established a beach head on the African continent. Carthage was prepared to surrender, but the terms offered by Rome were too severe, and in 255 Carthage attacked with a new army built around cavalry and elephants and drove the invaders to the sea. The battle for Sicily resumed in 254 but was a stalemate until 241 when a fleet of 200 warships gave the Romans undisputed control of the sea lanes and assured the collapse of the Punic stronghold in Sicily. One year later Carthage surrendered ceding Sicily and the Lipari Islands to Rome and agreeing to pay an indemnity. Julius Caesar- A Roman general and statesman and was known for conquering of Gaul, victor in the Civil war of 49-46 BC and dictator in 46-44 BC who launched a series of political and social reforms when he was assassinated by a group of nobles in the Senate House. A patrician by birth he became prosecuting advocate in Rome and was elected quaestor and curule aedile for 65. In 63 he was elected pontifex maximus and in 62 praetor. Caesar conquered Gaul in a number of campaigns between 58 and 50 and in 49 after being instructed by the Senate to lay down his command; he crossed the Rubicon signifying the beginning of the Roman civil war. He waged campaigns on several fronts, aided Cleopatra of Egypt and acquired the title of dictator. He was assassinated by a group of senatorial conspirators led by Cassius and Brutus. Augustus- Also known as Octavian was the first Roman emperor that introduced an autocratic regime known as the first citizen, and enabled him working through institutions that were republican in outward form to overhaul every aspect of Roman life and to bring stability and prosperity to the Greco-Roman world. One of the great administrative geniuses of history, he centralized the power of the Roman empire of his day in Rome itself and established the Pax Romana. He was born to a prosperous family and was named adoptive son and heir of Julius Caesar, his great uncle, at the age of 18. In the power struggle that followed Caesar’s death he became one of three that reconstituted the Roman state. After defeating Caesar’s assassins, Brutus and Cassius at Philippi, Octavian and Antony partitioned the empire with Octavian receiving the west as his portion. Octavian then overcame various rivals that included Lepidus and Antony and Cleopatra to become ruler of the Greco-Roman world and preserved the republican forms of government. Jesus of Nazareth- Jesus was born in a troubled time, when Roman rule aroused hatred and unrest among the Jews. This climat4e of hostility affected the lives of all who lived in Judaea, Roman and Jew alike. It forms the backdrop of Jesus’ life and it had a fundamental impact on his ministry. Without an understanding of this age of anxiety in Judaea, Jesus and early Christianity cannot properly be appreciated. The entry of Rome into Jewish affairs was certainly not peaceful. The civil wars that destroyed the republic wasted the prosperity of Judaea and the entire eastern Mediterranean world. Jewish leaders took sides in the fighting, and Judaea suffered its share of ravages and military confiscations. Peace brought little satisfaction to the Jews. Added to the horrors of civil war were years of crop failure, which caused famine and plague. As the ravages of war became ever more widespread and conditions worsened, more and more people prophesied the imminent coming of the Messiah. Into this climate of Roman severity, Zealotry and Messianic hope came Jesus of Nazareth. He was born in Galilee, the stronghold of the Zealots. Yet Jesus was a man of peace and his teachings were entirely and thoroughly Jewish. Paul of Tarsus- Christianity might have remained a purely Jewish sect had it not been for Paul of Tarsus. The conversion of Hellenized Jews and of Gentiles, non-Jews, to Christianity caused the sect grave problems. Were the Gentiles subject to the laws of Moses? If not, was Christianity to have two sets of laws? The answer to these questions was Paul’s momentous contribution to Christianity. Paul was unlike Jesus or Peter. Born in a thriving and busy city filled with Romans, Greeks, Jews, Syrians, and others, he was at home in the world of Greco-Roman culture. After his conversion to Christianity he taught that his native Judaism was the preparation for the Messiah, and that Jesus by his death and resurrection had fulfilled the prophecy of Judaism and initiated a new age. Paul said that Jesus was the Son of God, the beginning of a new law, and he preached that Jesus teachings were to be proclaimed to all people, whether Jew or Gentile. Chapter Twelve: Monsoon System- Has to do with trade and how trade is conducted in history. A monsoon is any major wind system that seasonally reverses its direction. One that blew for approximately six months from the northeast and six months from the southwest, the most prominent examples of the seasonal winds occur in southern Asia and in Africa. The primary cause of monsoons lies in the difference of the annual temperature trends over land and sea, though other factors may be involved as well. Constantine- In the final part of the third century A. D. the emperor Diocletian put an end to the period of turmoil. Repairing the damage done in the third century was the major wok of the emperor Constantine (306-337) in the fourth. But the price was high. Under Diocletian, Augustus’s polite fiction of the emperor as â€Å"first among equals† gave way to the emperor as absolute autocrat. The princes became lord. The emperor claimed that he was â€Å"the elect of god† and that he ruled because of god’s favor. In the fourth century, Constantine even claimed to be the equal of Jesus’ first twelve followers. To underline the emperor’s exalted position Diocletian and Constantine adopted the gaudy court ceremonies and trappings of the Persian Empire. People entering the emperor’s presence prostrated themselves before him and kissed the hem of his robes. Constantine went so far as to import Persian eunuchs to run the palace. The Roman emperor had become an oriental monarch. The most serious immediate matter confronting Diocletian and Constantine were economic, social and religious. They needed additional revenues to pay for the army and the imperial court. Yet the wars and the barbarian invasions had caused widespread destruction and poverty. The fighting had struck a serious blow to Roman agriculture, which the emperors tried to revive. In the religious sphere Christianity had become too strong either to ignore or to crush. How Diocletian, Constantine and their successors dealt with those problems helped create the economic and social patterns medieval Europe inherited. Attila the Hun- King of the Huns from 434 to 453 and ruled jointly with his elder brother Bleda until 445. He was one of the greatest of the barbarian rulers who assaulted the Roman Empire invading the southern Balkan provinces and Greece and then Gaul and Italy. From 435 to 439 the activities of Attila are unknown but he seems to have been engaged in subduing barbarian people to the north or east of his dominions. The Eastern Romans do not appear to have paid the sums stipulated in the treaty of Margus and so in 441 when their forces were occupied in the west and on the eastern frontier, Attila launched a heavy assault on the Danubian frontier of the Eastern Empire. He captured and ravaged a number of important cities. Attila’s movements after the conclusion of peace in the autumn are again unknown. About 445 he murdered his brother Bleda and ruled the Huns as an autocrat. He made a second attack after this on the Eastern Roman Empire, not much is written on this attack. Manichaeism- Was a dualistic religious movement founded in Persia in the 3rd century AD by Mani who was known as the Apostle of Light and supreme Illuminator. Although Manichaeism was long considered a Christian heresy, it was a religion in its own right, because of the coherence of its doctrines and the rigid ness of its structure and institutions preserved throughout its history a unity and unique character. Mani was born in southern Babylonia, now Iraq. With his annunciation at the age of 24 he obeyed a heavenly order to manifest himself publicly and to proclaim his doctrines. From that point on, Mani preached throughout the Persian Empire. At first unhindered, he later was opposed by the king, condemned and imprisoned. After 26 days of trials, which his followers called the Passion of the Illuminator or Mani’s crucifixion. Mani delivered a final message to his disciples and died.