Friday, May 22, 2020

American Revolution Battle of Bunker Hill

The Battle of Bunker Hill was fought on June 17, 1775, during the American Revolution (1775-1783). Armies Commanders Americans Major General Israel PutnamColonel William Prescottapprox. 2,400-3,200 men British Lieutenant General Thomas GageMajor General William Howeapprox. 3,000 men Background Following the British retreat from the Battles of Lexington and Concord, American forces closed and laid siege to Boston. Trapped in the city, the British commander, Lieutenant General Thomas Gage, requested reinforcements to facilitate a breakout. On May 25, HMS Cerberus arrived at Boston carrying Major Generals William Howe, Henry Clinton, and John Burgoyne. As the garrison had been reinforced to around 6,000 men, the British generals began making plans to clear the Americans from the approaches to the city. To do so, they intended to first seize Dorchester Heights to the south. From this position, they would then attack the American defenses at Roxbury Neck. With this done, operations would shift north with British forces occupying the heights on the Charlestown Peninsula and marching on Cambridge. Their plan formulated, the British intended to attack on June 18. Across the lines, the American leadership received intelligence regarding Gages intentions on June 13. Assessing the threat, General Artemas Ward ordered Major General Israel Putnam to advance onto the Charlestown Peninsula and erect defenses atop Bunker Hill. Fortifying the Heights On the evening of June 16, Colonel William Prescott departed Cambridge with a force of 1,200 men. Crossing Charlestown Neck, they moved onto Bunker Hill. As work began on fortifications, discussion ensued between Putnam, Prescott, and their engineer, Captain Richard Gridley, regarding the site. Surveying the landscape, they decided that nearby Breeds Hill offered a better position. Halting work on Bunker Hill, Prescotts command advanced to Breeds and began working on a square redoubt measuring approximately 130 feet per side. Though spotted by British sentries, no action was taken to dislodge the Americans. Around 4:00 AM, HMS Lively (20 guns) opened fire on the new redoubt. Though this briefly halted the Americans, Livelys fire soon ceased on Vice Admiral Samuel Graves order. As the sun began to rise, Gage became fully aware of the developing situation. He immediately ordered Graves ships to bombard Breeds Hill, while British Army artillery joined in from Boston. This fire had little effect on Prescotts men. With the sun rising, the American commander quickly realized that the Breeds Hill position could be easily flanked to the north or west. The British Act Lacking the manpower to fully rectify this issue, he ordered his men to begin building a breastwork extending north from the redoubt. Meeting in Boston, the British generals debated their best course of action. While Clinton advocated for a strike against Charlestown Neck to cut off the Americans, he was vetoed by the other three who favored a direct attack against Breeds Hill. As Howe was senior among Gages subordinates, he was tasked with leading the assault. Crossing to the Charlestown Peninsula with around 1,500 men, Howe landed at Moultons Point on its eastern edge (Map). For the attack, Howe intended to drive around the colonial left flank while Colonel Robert Pigot feinted against the redoubt. Landing, Howe noticed additional American troops on Bunker Hill. Believing these to be reinforcements, he halted his force and requested additional men from Gage. Having witnessed the British preparing to attack, Prescott also requested reinforcements. These arrived in the form of Captain Thomas Knowltons men who were posted behind a rail fence on the American left. They were soon joined by troops from New Hampshire led by Colonels John Stark and James Reed. The British Attack With the American reinforcements extending their line north the Mystic River, Howes route around the left was blocked. Though additional Massachusetts troops reached the American lines before the start of the battle, Putnam struggled to organize additional troops in the rear. This was further complicated by fire from the British ships in the harbor. By 3:00 PM, Howe was ready to commence his attack. As Pigots men formed near Charlestown, they were harassed by American snipers. This led to Graves firing on the town and sending men ashore to burn it. Moving against Starks position along the river with light infantry and grenadiers, Howes men advanced in a line four deep. Under strict orders to hold their fire until the British were within close range, Starks men unleashed deadly volleys into the enemy. Their fire caused the British advance to falter and then fall back after taking heavy losses. Seeing Howes attack collapse, Pigot also retired (Map). Re-forming, Howe ordered Pigot to assault the redoubt while he advanced against the rail fence. As with the first assault, these were repulsed with severe casualties (Map). While Prescotts troops were having success, Putnam continued to have issues in the American rear with only a trickle of men and material reaching the front. Again re-forming, Howe was reinforced with additional men from Boston and ordered a third attack. This was to focus on the redoubt while a demonstration was made against the American left. Attacking up the hill, the British came under heavy fire from Prescotts men. During the advance, Major John Pitcairn, who had played a key role at Lexington, was killed. The tide turned when the defenders ran out of ammunition. As the battle devolved into hand-to-hand combat, the bayonet-equipped British quickly seized the upper hand (Map). Taking control of the redoubt, they compelled Stark and Knowlton to fall back. While the bulk of the American forces fell back in haste, Stark and Knowltons commands retreated in a controlled fashion which bought time for their comrades. Though Putnam attempted to rally troops on Bunker Hill, this ultimately failed and the Americans retreated back across Charlestown Neck to fortified positions around Cambridge. During the retreat, the popular Patriot leader Joseph Warren was killed. A newly appointed major general but lacking in military experience, he had declined command during the battle and volunteered to fight as infantry. By 5:00 PM the fighting had ended with the British in possession of the heights. Aftermath The Battle of Bunker Hill cost the Americans 115 killed, 305 wounded, and 30 captured. For the British the butchers bill was an immense 226 killed and 828 wounded for a total of 1,054. Though a British victory, the Battle of Bunker Hill did not change the strategic situation around Boston. Rather, the high cost of the victory sparked debate in London and startled the military. The high number of casualties sustained also contributed to Gages dismissal from command. Appointed to replace Gage, Howe would be haunted by the specter of Bunker Hill in subsequent campaigns as its carnage affected his decision making. Commenting on the battle in his diary, Clinton wrote, A few more such victories would have shortly put an end to British dominion in America. Selected Sources British Battles: Battle of Bunker HillMassachusetts Historical Society: Battle of Bunker HillSymonds, Craig (1986). A Battlefield Atlas of the American Revolution. Baltimore, MD: The Nautical Aviation Publishing Company of America.

Friday, May 8, 2020

An Article On The Homeless Hotspots - 985 Words

Firstly, the major dilemma that is occurring right now is whether or not the homeless people should be on the streets wearing a t-shirt identifying them as homeless. Also on the back of the t- shirt it would have their last name on the shirt so people would know who they are. The issue or issues at hand are is this exposing the homeless population and labeling them, or is this a good thing to give homeless people an opportunity. Some may argue that it is degrading for someone that is homeless to be wearing a t- shirt and serve as homeless hotspots. But some important factors that can be considered are it promotes a business opportunity for the homeless people that engage in the homeless hotspots, they earn more money and more importantly meet other people and they get a t – shirt. Furthermore, it creates a business opportunity for the homeless people that accept the offer and agree to get involved with the homeless hotspots. An article out of Austin, Texas, ( wifi-hotspots-in-charitable-experiment.html), stated that a homeless individual who had been shining shoes, said that to earn a profit he would do it in a heartbeat. He said, â€Å"out of twenty people who sit down at my stand at least six are on their I- phones or blackberry or something to get onto the Internet†. It comes down to a business opportunity for many individuals who are homeless. They were able to obtain business cards, t –shirt, and 20Show MoreRelatedHuman Trafficking And The United States1066 Words   |  5 Pagesthat human trafficking exist, but in a far away reality, an incident homed only in poor, third world countries. This couldn’t be farther away from the truth. Human trafficking is a real and current problem in the United States, California being a hotspot for this issue, and with the Super Bowl in 2016 the problem will only get worse. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Code of Ethics in Malaysia Free Essays

Rev. : 0 Date : 9. 8. We will write a custom essay sample on Code of Ethics in Malaysia or any similar topic only for you Order Now 2005 BEM/RD/PPC/12 BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO CODE OF ETHICS FOR YOUNG ENGINEERS Serial No: 0021 INTRODUCTION The Board of Engineers Malaysia (BEM) has, from time to time, received enquiries and complaints from the public about the conduct of engineers in relation to the Registration of Engineers Act. BEM has, therefore, produced the guidelines herein that outline the conduct expected of engineers. These guidelines are set out under a number of broad areas relating to the engineering profession. Do’s Don’ ts 1) Registration Under the Registration of Engineers Act 1967 (Act 138) and subsequent amendments, the most recent being year 2002, it is a requirement of the Law that any person providing engineering services be a qualified person and registered with the Board of Engineers Malaysia. This requirement extends to foreigners who are required to seek registration as Temporary Engineers. The Do’ and Don’ s ts below relate to the requirement of this Act. DO’s 1. 1 An engineering graduate with accredited engineering degree must register with the Board of Engineers to take up employment as an engineer DON’ Ts 1. 1. 2 1. 3 1. 4 1. 5 An engineer should not be the Submitting Person for designs beyond his/her area of competency An engineer should not endorse his PE Stamp and sign on reports or plans not prepared by him. (see also Consultancy – 2. 3 of Don’ ) t An engineer should not enter into partnership with any party not per mitted under the Engineers Act. An Engineering Consultancy Practice should not provide professional services in any branch of engineering where none of its directors are registered to practise in that branch of engineering. An engineer must not practise in the branch of engineering he is not registered in. ) Consultancy In the Registration of Engineers Act 1967 (Revised 2002), provision is included for the registration of Accredited Checkers and the requirement of Continuing Professional Development (CPD) beginning year 2005. DO’s 2. 1 2. 2 2. 3 2. 4 2. 5 2. 6 2. 7 2. 8 2. 9 An engineer should be transparent and receptive to peer review or checking of his work if requested/required by the client/authorities. A checker engineer must be open to the views and design concept of the original designer and in areas of disagreement, the checker must give justification for his disagreement. A checker engineer should take full responsibility for the checking of the work himself. An engineer should undertake continuing professional development to enhance his knowledge and capability. An employer engineer should ensure that his employee engineers are bona fide engineers registered with BEM. An engineer should report unethical practice to BEM. An engineer who is a Submitting Person must ensure the accuracy of and be responsible for all works delegated to others by him. An engineer should make optimum use of manpower, materials and money. An engineer should be aware of Government requirement to use local materials, wherever possible. DON’ Ts 2. 1 2. 2 2. 3 2. 4 2. 5 2. 6 2. 7 2. 8 2. 9 A checker engineer should not accept checking of work not within his area of competency as well as work that he is not familiar with. An engineering consultant should not carry out projects for fees below the minimum outlined in the scale of fees. An engineer should not endorse any work not performed and/or supervised by him. An engineer should not supplant another engineer. An engineer should not compromise on public safety. An engineer should not offer his opinion on engineering matters unless he has full facts to support the opinion. An engineer should not base his design on unsubstantiated data, for example designing foundation without soil investigation. An engineer should not have any conflict of interest whatsoever in connection with the work he is undertaking unless prior approval from BEM and client are obtained. An engineer should not accept work outside his regular work without the expressed permission of his employer. 1 3) Supervision The supervision of works designed by the Submitting Engineer is a requirement under the Uniform Building By-Law 5 (UBBL 5). This ByLaw states that supervision must be provided by the Submitting Engineer to ensure that the works carried out are as intended in the design. Delegation of supervision is permitted but the responsibility of this supervision still rests with the Submitting Engineer. DO’s 3. 1 3. 2 3. 3 3. 4 3. 5 3. 6 An engineer who is the Submitting Person should be responsible for the project regardless of whether it is self-supervised and/or delegated supervision. An engineer must be meticulously proper and correct in certification of works. An engineer must be familiar with and knowledgeable in the work he is to supervise. An employer engineer shall ensure that his staff undergoes regular and proper skills-training. An engineer supervising a project shall keep proper records of all documents and correspondence pertaining to the project. An engineer must be conversant with time and cost implications in the issuance of any instruction. DON’ Ts 3. 1 3. 2 3. 3 3. 4 3. 5 3. 6 An engineer must not over or under certify progress of works. An engineer must not make wrongful certifications. An engineer must not certify work not within his expertise. An engineer must not accept site supervisory staff who are not qualified or are incompetent. An engineer must not delay approvals without justification. An engineer must not intentionally delay inspection of works. 4) Regulatory Requirements All engineers registered with the Board of Engineers Malaysia must be familiar with the requirements of the Registration of Engineers Act 1967 (Act 138) and its subsequent amendments. Ignorance of the requirements of this Act is no defense in the Courts of Law in Malaysia. DO’s 4. 1 4. 2 4. 3 4. 4 An engineer should notify the relevant authorities (within reasonable/statutory time limit) on changes in designs or withdrawal of services. An engineer should submit completed forms in time for inspection and approval for Certificate of Fitness / Certificate of Completion and Compliance. An engineer should be aware of environmental, health and safety matters during and after construction. An engineer should ensure that environmental, health and safety measures are implemented as per drawings and specifications. DON’ Ts 4. 1 4. 2 An engineer should not allow works to proceed before plans are submitted to and/or approved by the relevant authorities. An engineer should not undertake a project for which the client is not going to fulfill statutory requirements. 5) Code of Ethics All engineers are expected to uphold the integrity of the profession by behaving in a manner expected of him in the Code of Conduct of Engineers. DO’s 5. 1 5. 2 5. 3 An engineer must be conversant with the Code of Conduct of Engineers. An engineer must understand the need for responsibility and liability as stipulated in the Code of Conduct. An engineer must respond promptly to complaints and enquiries by clients /authorities. DON’ Ts 5. 1 5. 2 5. 3 5. 4 An engineer should not solicit/ tout. An engineer should not knowingly mislead the public by giving misrepresented information so as to gain commercial advantage/mileage. An engineer should not respond to an open advertisement to bid for provision of professional service if such provision for the service requires bidding fees or equivalent as is usually imposed on contractors. An engineer should avoid favoritism among vendors and other suppliers. These guidelines are by no means exhaustive and will be updated from time to time to reflect the changing needs of the profession. All engineers are required to be fully familiar with the Registration of Engineers Act 1967 (Act 138), and its subsequent amendments, and the Code of Ethics. The requirements of this Act are to be upheld at all times by the engineering profession. 2 How to cite Code of Ethics in Malaysia, Essay examples